In the decades since the end of the Second World War, much has been written about the war and fascism, the driving force behind the aggression that precipitated that conflict. Unfortunately, much of what has been said and written has failed to identify and analyze the causes, nature and methodology of fascism—German National Socialism or “Nazism” in particular. A deeper, more accurate analysis was presented in literature published before, during and immediately after World War II.
SpitfireList.com is pleased to present a number of books published during that period. Almost all more than 50 years old, these works embody a more complete, profound analysis of the historical forces that dominated the events of that time and, more importantly, our own. Whereas much contemporary literature on the subject presents fascism (and Nazism in particular) as an aberration, the phenomenon was an outgrowth of major political forces and dynamics that dominate and control contemporary events and processes.
Some of the books presented here illustrate the extent to which fascism (Nazism in particular) was an outgrowth of globalization and the construction of international monopolies (cartels). Key to understanding this phenomenon is analysis of the Webb-Pomerene act, legislated near the end of the First World War. A loophole in the Anti-trust legislation of 1914, it effectively legalized the formation of cartels—international monopolies—for firms that were barred from domestic monopolistic practices.
Decrying what they viewed as excessive and restrictive “regulation” here in the United States, U.S.-based transnational corporations invested their profits from the industrial boom of the 1920’s abroad, primarily in Japan and Germany. This process might well be viewed as the real beginning of what is now known as “globalization.” [FTR#’s 99, 361, 426, 511 and 532 present an overview of the reinvestment of the wealth generated by the American industrial boom of the 1920’s in German and Japanese strategic heavy industry. It was this capital that drove the engines of conquest that subdued both Europe and Asia during the conflict.]
At the conclusion of the Second World War, industrialists, financiers and associated luminaries formed the World Commerce Corporation. Explicitly designed to replace the German-based cartels that coalesced after World War I, the WCC directed the postwar flow of wealth into channels favored by the global corporate elite, thus preserving the fundamental economic order established in previous decades via the Webb-Pomerene Act.
Germany’s Master Plan (1943) [Download Part 1 Part 2 ] by Borkin and Welsh analyzes how the Nazis took advantage of the budding globalized economy to restrict their enemies’ strategic production, as well as their access to critical raw materials. Treason’s Peace (1947) [Download Part 1 Part 2 ] by Howard Watson Ambruster highlights how the I.G. Farben chemical firm manipulated trade relationships to the advantage of the Third Reich. In addition, the book illustrates how corporations, businessmen and politicians beholden unto the firm’s non-German cartel partners assisted that manipulation, as well as the postwar rehabilitation and exoneration of both I.G. and its most important personnel. Illuminating also is Josiah Du Bos’s The Devil’s Chemists, written by a member of the Nuremberg judicial staff that prosecuted key personnel of the I.G., to little overall avail.
James Stewart Martin’s All Honorable Men (1950) [Download Part 1 Part 2] documents the manner in which powerful economic interests in the United States frustrated attempts at de-cartelization and thereby ensured the postwar perpetuation of globalized “business as usual.” As Martin points out, these commercial interests were able to successfully manipulate the networks through which government operates, and direct it to their own nefarious ends.
The lone title in the collection less than 50 years old, Paul Manning’s Martin Bormann: Nazi in Exile (1981) [Download] chronicles the postwar underground perpetuation of the Nazi political and business hierarchy and its dominant role in both the international corporate economy and the contemporary political landscape.
Although the book is current and, therefore, not available on this website, interested researchers are emphatically encouraged to read Gold Warriors by Sterling and Peggy Seagrave. Covering the Japanese equivalent of the Bormann flight capital network, the volume is a heroic, masterful analysis and penetration of the Asian wing of the cartel system that spawned fascism, as well as the realities of the post-World War II economic landscape. (FTR #‘s 427, 428, 446, 451, 501, 509, 689 deal with the subject of the Golden Lily program successfully implemented by the Japanese to loot Asia.)
The Third Reich’s elaborate plans for postwar underground survival and continuity were predicated on the certainty that the multinational corporate community would preserve the Nazi infrastructure as a bulwark against communism during the (then) imminent Cold War. This “Underground Reich” was foreseen and analyzed in Curt Reiss’s The Nazis Go Underground [Download], published in early 1944. In the Federal Republic of Germany–the “new” Germany–key Third Reich veterans occupied the principal positions of power and influence in the country’s commercial, military, political and judicial establishments.
Not only were key Nazi functionaries installed at every significant level of the German state, but investigators discovered that a Nazi government-in-exile was continuing to call the shots in the Federal Republic through a fuehringsring–a clandestine control network emanating, in part, from Franco’s Spain. The role of this Underground Reich executing Nazi political will in the Federal Republic is chronicled in T.H. Tetens’ The New Germany and the Old Nazis.
In addition to the powerful corporate economic interests allied with Nazi business centers, the process of underground perpetuation was greatly aided by “Fifth Column” movements abroad. Composed of ideological supporters of the fascist philosophy, these Fifth Column movements were instrumental in realizing Nazi blueprints for military conquest during the war, as well as postwar continuation and enlargement of those plans. Written on the eve of World War II, Gollomb’s Armies of Spies [Download] correctly anticipated the enormous scope and effectively successful activities of the Fifth Columnists in nations slated for Nazi invasion.
Triumph of Treason (1944) by Pierre Cot is a remarkable first-hand account of the subversion of France by powerful domestic interests, who saw political control by their ideological allies (and cartel business partners) in Germany as preferable to power-sharing with their own democratically-minded citizens. (Cot had been the French Minister of Aviation in the immediate pre-war period, and witnessed the deliberate, successful attempts at weakening France’s ability to resist the Nazis militarily. The traitors who subverted French democracy then blamed the French collapse on their patriotic political opponents.) NB: Due to the wartime print and page layout, scanning this book proved overly difficult and time consuming. Fortunately, it is available on line in its entirety. The URL can be found by following the link to the book and its description.
In developing their Fifth Column movements abroad, the Nazis (and the Japanese) proceeded in a geopolitical manner. Because they saw Spain as the key to the domination of several continents (Europe, North Africa, Latin America), the Nazis and their allies in the general staff groomed the Spanish Falange as the fascist movement of choice. Writing of this in Falange (1943), [Download Part 1 Part 2] Alan Chase notes how the Reich then used political control of Spain to advance their agenda in Latin America and the Spanish-speaking world. The reader is invited to address Chase’s research in light of the relatively well-documented postwar operation and perpetuation of fascist interests in Latin America.
For the Nazis, geopolitics dictated a profound interest in the Muslim peoples of what they called “The Earth Island”—a giant, contiguous land mass that encompasses all of Europe, much of the Middle East, the former Soviet Union, India (including Pakistan at the time), and China. Stretching from the Straits of Gibraltar to the Pacific coasts of China and Russia, this land mass contains most of the world’s territory, population and natural resources—oil in particular. Control that land and you control the world. Accordingly, the Nazis built alliances with the various Muslim populations (Arabs in particular) that are indigenous to many of the most important petroleum-producing regions. Writing in 1951, John Roy Carlson witnessed and chronicled the postwar Nazi recrudescence in the Middle East in Cairo to Damascus [Download Part 1 Part 2] a work that has particular importance for students of the events of 9/11/2001.
In an earlier work—Under Cover (1943) [Download Part 1 Part 2]—Carlson infiltrated and wrote about the vigorous Axis underground that existed in the United States before and during World War II. Acts of assassination and sabotage in support of the Axis powers were used to good effect. In Germany and Japan, political opponents to the rise of fascism were eliminated through a deliberate program of political murder.
It is in that context that we may view Government by Assassination (1942), Hugh Byas’s riveting account of the assassinations committed by the Japanese patriotic and ultra-nationalistic societies. [Note that this book is not yet available on this website, however key excerpts can be accessed in FTR #291.] Culminating in the “May 15th Incident”—the assassination of the Japanese Prime Minister on 5/15/1932—these murders were instrumental in the accession to power of the Japanese militarists and the corporate and imperial elements behind them.
Two other books available here provide valuable insights into the contemporary period. T.H. Tetens’ Germany Plots with the Kremlin (1953) [Download Part 1 Part 2] treats the pivotally important German “Ostpolitik,” which German power structure has traditionally exploited in order expand and develop its influence. The German threat to either remain neutral during the Cold War, or to ally with the USSR was a significant factor in persuading conservative American power brokers to go along with the return to power in Germany of the Nazi elements that prosecuted World War II. Under the circumstances, some of these conservatives felt that permitting Nazi elements to return to power behind a democratic façade was the lesser of two evils, although many would have preferred a more traditionally conservative German political establishment. This German “Ostpolitik,” in turn, is characteristic of the geopolitical foresight and cynicism with which Pan-Germanists have successfully pursued their goal of world domination through the centuries.
Paul Winkler’s The Thousand-Year Conspiracy (1943) [Download Part 1 Part 2] traces the origins of German chauvinism to the ascent of the Teutonic Knights within Germanic society. Winkler labels the enablers of the dark side of the German character “Prusso-Teutonics” and notes that, in their pursuit of Pan-German goals, they do not hesitate to deal in a cynical and ruthless manner with their own citizens. Of particular note for contemporary Americans is the deliberate, Machiavellian manipulation of the German economy by Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht, the American-born financier who eventually became the finance minister of the Third Reich. Take note of Winkler’s account of how Schacht re-structured the German economy with an eye to—among other things—driving the citizenry to such a point of hysteria that they would willingly follow the likes of Hitler. Compare Winkler’s analysis with what is taking place today in the United States. Writing in 1943, Winkler foresaw that the Prusso-Teutonics would realize their goals through the creation of a German-dominated central European economic union (bearing a striking resemblance to today’s European Monetary Union.)
“Those Who Forget the Past Are Condemned to Repeat It”
“ . . . We cannot turn over our future economic policy to private groups without public responsibility, as we have in the past. . . .”
—U.S. Attorney General Thurman W. Arnold, writing in the “Introduction” to Germany’s Master Plan