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For The Record  

FTR #408 Update on 9/11, Including the Iraq War

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Bringing up to date a number of avenues of investigation, this program highlights some of the manifestations of the Underground Reich in connection with the events of 9/11 and the Iraq war. Beginning with the obituary of a former CIA official who recruited both the Gehlen spy organization and the Baath party of Iraq on behalf of the US effort during the Cold War, the broadcast underscores how European, secular Arabo-fascist and Islamofascist elements associated with the Underground Reich came to be “embedded” with the US political and national security establishments. These elements have now turned with a vengeance upon the United States. After presenting information about German intelligence overtures to Saddam Hussein prior to the Iraq war, FTR#408 develops information about the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft’s apparent sponsorship of Mohammed Atta’s sojourn in Germany and (perhaps) his presence in the United States. Named after one of the key progenitors of I.G. Farben, this private foundation is supported by both the German and American governments. Most of the second half of the program deals with the growing influence of the Islamofascist Muslim Brotherhood within Muslim populations of both Europe and the Middle East, as well as fascist influence within the anti-war movements in both Europe and the US.

Program Highlights Include: The Muslim Brotherhood’s presence within the French Muslim community (UOIF); the connections between theUOIF and the Bank Al Taqwa; the Turkish Muslim Brotherhood’s links to the governing AK party in Turkey; evidentiary tributaries connecting the Islamist Milli Gorus organization in Germany with Necmettin Erbakan—an associate of Al Taqwa’s Ahmed Huber; Huber’s efforts on behalf of the Refah party of Erbakan and Refah’s sponsorship of Huber’s journalistic efforts; the association of the British anti-war movement with the Muslim Brotherhood; operational links between ex-Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke’s EURO organization with International ANSWER; the efforts of the German neo-Nazi NPD (with which Huber is associated) to infiltrate and control the German anti-war movement; review of the NPD’s links to Islamist movements in Germany; efforts of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad on behalf of Saddam Hussein; review of Palestinian Islamic Jihad’s links to the Republican Party’s ethnic outreach milieu and Grover Norquist.

1. The program opens with a revealing obituary—that of former CIA officer James H. Critchfield. A primary figure in the recruitment of the Gehlen spy organization, Critchfield also helped with the CIA backing for Saddam Hussein’s fascist Baath party. Both the Gehlen organization and Saddam Hussein ultimately came back to haunt the United States.

The American alignment with these fascist elements—both associated with the Underground Reich—set the stage for the “doubling” of these elements on the U.S.

“James H. Critchfield, a powerful CIA insider during the Cold War whose anti-Soviet missions included recruiting former Third Reich operatives and supporting the Iraqi political party that put Saddam Hussein in power, died Tuesday from pancreatic cancer in Williamsburg, Va. He was 86. Mr. Critchfield a decorated U.S. Army officer during World War II, was best known in intelligence circles as the CIA’s liaison to the Gehlen Organization, a group of former Third Reich intelligence and military officials initially recruited by the U.S. Army because of their purported knowledge of the Soviet Union.”

(“James Critchfield—CIA Go-Between with Nazi Officials” [AP]; San Francisco Chronicle; 4/24/2003; p. A21.)

2.

“That group turned out to be tainted with fabricators, double agents and Nazi war criminals and has been the focus of a task force created to oversee the 1999 Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act, which has resulted in the biggest declassification of U.S. intelligence records in history. Mr. Critchfield himself drew parallels between the moral compromises made at the end of World War II with his recommendation in the early 1960’s that the United States support the Baath Party, which staged a 1963 coup against the Iraqi government that the CIA believed was falling under Soviet influence . . .”

(Idem.)

3. Interestingly—and possibly significantly—Critchfield became a consultant after retirement. In FTR#’s 214, 334, we discussed the apparent collusion between George Bush’s CIA, the Saudis and retired intelligence officers associated with the petroleum industry in arranging the phony “oil shortage” of 1979, which destabilized the Carter administration and set the stage for the enormous military build-up under the Reagan administration. Combined with the Reagan administration’s tax cuts, that build-up led to the enormous budget deficits of the Reagan years. We are set to repeat that situation under George Bush.

“With the growing political importance of Middle East oil, he became the CIA’s national intelligence officer for energy in the early 1970’s, then an energy policy planner at the White House. After retiring from the CIA in 1974, Mr. Critchfield became a consultant.”

(Idem.)

4. An Iraqi exile, writing in the Financial Times, noted the fascist influence on Saddam Hussein.

“The tyrant who styled himself a 20th century Saladin was born in a small village organized around its tribe. An orphan, Saddam was brought up by his maternal uncle, a disgrace according to Iraqi tribal norms, which cherish paternal descent. In his adolescence, he embraced a form of Arabist ideology, influenced by Nazi ideals, which was advocated by his uncle.”

(“End of a Dictator” by Faleh A. Jabar; Financial Times; 4/12/13/2003; p. I.)

5. Supplementing information from previous programs about German support for Saddam Hussein and the Underground Reich’s use of Iraq and other Middle Eastern nations and peoples as proxy warriors, the broadcast sets forth information about efforts by German intelligence to court Iraq in the run-up to the recent war.

“Germany’s intelligence services attempted to build closer links to Saddam’s secret service during the build-up to war last year, documents from the bombed Iraqi intelligence HQ in Baghdad obtained by The Telegraph reveal. They show that an agent named as Johannes William Hoffner, described as a ‘new German representative in Iraq’ who had entered the country under diplomatic cover, attended a meeting with Lt. Gen. Taher Jalil Haboosh, the director of Iraq’s intelligence service.”

(“German Spies Offered Help to Saddam in Run-Up to War” by David Harrison; Daily Telegraph; 4/24/2003; p. 1.)

6.

“During the meeting, on January 29, 2002, Lt. Gen Haboosh says that the Iraqis are keen to have a relationship with Germany’s intelligence agency ‘under diplomatic cover’, adding that he hopes to develop that relationship through Mr. Hoffner. The German replies: ‘My Organization wants to develop its relationship with your organization.’ In return, the Iraqis offered to give lucrative contracts to German companies if the Berlin government helped prevent an American invasion of the country.”

(Idem.)

7.

“ . . . The meeting between the Iraqi and German agents took place some six months before Chancellor Schroder’s Social Democrat-led government began its policy of direct opposition to the idea of an American/British-led war against Iraq. The policy was adopted in the heat of last year’s German general election campaign, at a time when the Social Democrats were widely predicted to lose the contest. Mr. Schroder was re-elected as chancellor last September, largely because of the popularity of his government’s outspoken opposition to the war against Iraq. The apparently verbatim account of the meeting between Lt. Gen Haboosh and Mr. Hoffner was among documents recovered by The Telegraph in the rubble of the Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad, which was heavily bombed.”

(Ibid.; p. 2.)

8. In return for German support, the Iraqi regime was prepared to reward German corporations with lucrative contracts.

“During the meeting, Lt Gen Haboosh tells the German agent that Iraq has ‘big problems’ with Britain and the United States. ‘We have problems with Britain because it occupied Iraq for 60 years and with America because of its aggression for 11 years,’ he says. He adds, however, that Iraq has no problems with Germany and suggests that Germany will be rewarded with lucrative contracts if it offers international support to Iraq. ‘When the American conspiracy is finished, we will make a calculation for each state that helps Iraq in its crisis.’”

(Idem.)

9.

“He also urges Mr. Hoffner to lobby the German government to raise its diplomatic mission in Baghdad to full ambassadorial level. Mr. Hoffner says that it would be a decision for the German foreign ministry, but Germany’s diplomatic presence in the Iraqi capital made it easier for him to enter Iraq because he was able to use diplomatic cover. Last night, a spokesman for the German government said it was ‘well known’ that it had been offered lucrative contracts by Baghdad providing it maintained an anti-Iraq war stance. ‘Iraq made these kinds of promises before the war and praised Germany for its position,’ he said.”

(Idem.)
10. A riveting allegation about Mohammed Atta’s German connections is featured on investigative reporter Daniel Hopsicker’s website.

“For at least four years while living in Hamburg during the 1990’s terrorist ringleader Mohamed Atta was part of a ‘joint venture’ between the U.S. and German Governments, the MadCowMorning News has learned, an elite international ‘exchange’ program run by a little-known private organization with close ties to powerful American political figures like David Rockefeller and former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. The jointly-funded government effort picked up the tab for Atta on sojourns in Cairo, Istanbul, and Aleppo in Syria during the years 1994 and 1995 and employed him as a ‘tutor’ and ‘seminar participant’ during 1996 and 1997.”

(“Atta Worked for Elite US-German Exchange Program” by Daniel Hopsicker; MadCowMorningNews; 4/24/2003; p. 1.)

11. Note that Atta’s German sponsorship may have dated to 1992 (when the elder George Bush was in office. (As discussed in FTR#403, the germ for the Project for a New American Century’s blueprint for US control of the Middle East was formulated by Paul Wolfowitz in 1992, when he was working for the elder Bush. The possibility that the 1992 sponsorship of Atta by his mysterious German benefactors and Wolfowitz’s 1992 projections are connected is not one to be too readily dismissed.

“Moreover Atta’s financial relationship with the U.S.-German government effort may even have extended back to his initial move from Egypt to Germany in 1992, after being ‘recruited’ in Cairo by a mysterious German couple dubbed the ‘hijacker’s sponsors’ in a recent news account in the Chicago Tribune. In the years before he became a ‘terrorist ringleader,’ Atta was enjoying the patronage of a government initiative overseen by the U.S. State Department and the German Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, the German equivalent of the U.S. Agency currently supervising the secretive bidding race for tens of billions of dollars of post-war reconstruction contracts in Iraq, the Agency for International Development.”

(Idem.)

12. The organization that apparently sponsored Atta’s travels was the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft (its American component is the Carl Duisberg Society)—named for one of the principal figures in the founding of I.G. Farben.

“News that Mohamed Atta had been on the payroll of an elite international program known as the ‘Congress-Bundestag Program first surfaced a month after the 9/11 attack in a brief seven-line report by German newspaper Frankfurter Algemeine Zeitung on 10/18/2001 under the headline ‘Atta was Tutor for Scholarship Holders.’ The story quoted a spokesman for ‘Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft,’ described as a ‘German international further education organization,’ as having admitted paying Hamburg cadre principal Atta as a ‘scholarship holder’ and ‘tutor,’ as the spokesman put it, between 1995 and 1997.”

(Ibid.; pp. 1-2.)

13.

“But the shocking revelation that Atta had therefore been on the payroll of a joint U.S.-German government program was concealed by the newspaper through the simple expedient of neglecting to mention that the ‘Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft’ was merely a private entity set up to administer an official U.S. and German government initiative. The U.S. end of the program is run out of an address at United Nations Plaza in New York by CDS International. The letters stand for Carl Duisberg Society, which is also the name of its German counterpart in Cologne, the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft. Both are named for Carl Duisberg, a German chemist and industrialist who headed the Bayer Corporation during the 1920’s.”

(Ibid.; p. 2.)

14.

“CDS International, states the organization’s literature, provides opportunities for young German professionals. ‘These young German engineers earn real world experience and are given assignments to contribute from the start,’ a program spokesman enthused in a newspaper interview . . .”

(Idem.)

15.

“Having powerful friends in such high places may also explain the curious omissions in a second story about Mohamed Atta’s time in Germany which appeared recently in The Chicago Tribune, headlined ‘9/11 Haunts Hijacker’s Sponsors; German Couple Talks , of Living with Pilot Atta.’ The March 7, 2003 describes the 1992 meeting in Cairo which led Mohamed Atta to move to Hamburg, between Atta and a German couple, which the paper does not name, who ran an international student exchange program, which the paper also leaves anonymous. ”

(Idem.)

16.

“During a visit to the Egyptian capital in fall 1991, said the Tribune, the German couple had stayed with friends who knew Atta’s father, a Cairo lawyer, and his father’s friends had then introduced the German couple to Atta. ‘Atta who had recently graduated with a degree in architectural engineering from the University of Cairo, told the couple he wanted to study architecture in Germany, but he had no particular idea where he should go,’ the paper reported . . .”

(Ibid.; p. 3.)

17.

“ ‘In this first conversation, we suggested he continue his studies in Hamburg and offered him a place to live at our house,’ the paper quotes the German wife telling investigators from the BKA, the German equivalent of the FBI. Atta, she states, accepted their offer right away. Why did an (unnamed) German couple, running an (unnamed) international exchange program leap at the chance to engage a young man who was not even considered promising enough to gain entrance to a local Cairo graduate school? The Tribune doesn’t say.”

(Idem.)

18.

“After studying German in Cairo, Atta arrived in the country on July 24, 1992, according to investigators’ records, and then lived rent-free for at least the next six months in the couple’s home in a quiet, middle-class neighborhood. It is more than curious that although Tribune correspondent Stevenson Swanson cites the German couple for ‘having played such an important role in Atta’s move to Germany,’ he never gives their names, nor that of the organization they worked for. But since just two years later, Atta was on the payroll of the ‘Congress-Bundestag Program,’ it is reasonable to conclude that this same government-funded program was responsible for bringing him to Germany in the first place, under the aegis of an unnamed German couple. His elite sponsors are apparently powerful enough to keep the organization’s name out of the newspapers, or at any rate, out of the Chicago Tribune.”

(Idem.)

19. Much of the rest of the program deals with growing influence of the Islamofascist Muslim Brotherhood in the Middle East and in Europe. Beginning with an examination of a German Islamist group affiliated with the Refah Party (the Turkish branch of the Muslim Brotherhood), the program highlights connections between that party and the AK party currently governing Turkey.

“Milli Gorus, Germany’s largest Islamic association, recently gained the official support of the Turkish government, despite being watched by German intelligence services due to alleged extremist leanings. On April 19, Turkey’s religious-conservative government ordered its embassies to offer the Islamische Gemeinschaft Milli Gorus (IGMG) their support. The group, formed in 1985 in Cologne to support Turkish nationalism and oppose the separation of state and religion, has long been criticized by German officials as being anti-Semitic and against liberal Western values.”

(“Turkey Offers Support for Controversial Islamic Group”; Deutsche Welle; 4/23/2003; p. 1.)

20.

“Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul on Saturday refused to discuss his specific directions to diplomats regarding Milli Gorus, saying only the government ‘has for some time tried to strengthen the ties between our country and our citizens overseas.’ The decision comes only two weeks after an agreement between Germany and Turkey on combating organized crime incensed many members of Turkey’s ruling AK party because it included Milli Gorus with groups like the Kurdish terrorist outfit PKK. Since many Ak members have ties to Islamic religious groups, Gul was compelled to say he did not consider Milli Gorus a terror organization.”

(Idem.)

21.

“Some observers say the attempt to reform its public image could be at least partly linked to the rise of Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan and his AK party. Coming to power in a landslide victory last year, Erdogan styles his party as a modern conservative group based on Muslim values. He has distanced himself from former mentor Necmettin Erbakan, who founded the Islamic-influenced Welfare Party. Erbakan’s nephew, Mehmet Sabri Erbakan, was IGMG chairman until he left office after allegedly having an extra-marital affair.”

(Ibid.; p. 2.)

22. Fleshing out discussion of Necmettin Erbakan, his Refah party and the Muslim Brotherhood, the program highlights Erbakan’s relationship with Ahmed Huber and the manner in which that relationship precipitated Huber’s ascension to his position as a director of Al Taqwa.

Speaking of the décor of Huber’s residence:

“A second photograph, in which Hitler is talking with Himmler, hangs next to those of Necmettin Erbakan and Jean-Marie Le Pen [leader of the fascist National Front]. Erbakan, head of the Turkish Islamist party, Refah, turned to Achmed Huber for an introduction to the chief of the French party of the far right. Exiting from the meeting (which took place in September 1995) Huber’s two friends supposedly stated that they ‘share the same view of the world’ and expressed ‘their common desire to work together to remove the last racist obstacles that still prevent the union of the Islamist movement with the national right of Europe.’”

(Dollars for Terror: The United States and Islam; by Richard Labeviere; Copyright 2000 [SC]; Algora Publishing; ISBN 1-892941-06-6; p. 142.)

23.

“Lastly, above the desk is displayed a poster of the imam Khomeini; the meeting ‘changed my life,’ Huber says, with stars in his eyes. For years, after the Federal Palace in Bern, Ahmed Huber published a European press review for the Iranian leaders, then for the Turkish Refah. Since the former lacked financial means, Huber chose to put his efforts to the service of the latter. An outpost of the Turkish Muslim Brothers, Refah thus became Huber’s principal employer; and it was through the intermediary of the Turkish Islamist party that this former parliamentary correspondent became a shareholder in the bank Al Taqwa.”

(Idem.)

24. The Muslim Brotherhood has significant influence in the UOIF, which had a strong showing in the recent French elections.

“ . . . The group that made a surprisingly strong showing in the election is the Union of Islamic Organizations in France. It preaches a strict, conservative interpretation of Islam, derives much of its support from the poor suburbs of Paris and other major cities and is said to derive its inspiration from the banned fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood, which originated in Egypt. It won 14 of 41 seats in the governing administrative council. The organization has come under fire from those who claim it has close links with the Muslim Brotherhood, which calls for Islamic rule via Islamic law, personal purification and political action, and cannot be officially recognized by a secular country like France.”

(“French Threaten Expulsions After Islam Radical Victory” by Elaine Sciolino; The New York Times; 4/16/2003; pp. 1-2.)

25. The UOIF has also had contact with the milieu of the Bank Al Taqwa.

“ . . . It [Al Taqwa] effected several fund transfers to the profit of a chief of this organization, the Lebanese Faycal Maoulaoui, former leader of the ‘Union of Islamic Organizations of France’ (UOIF), the Muslim Brothers’ organization in France. The transfers intended for Maoulaoui were executed by the intermediary of an account opened through the agency of Paribas in Lugano.”

(Dollars for Terror; p. 148.)

26. Next, the program reviews links between Said Ramadan and Nazi operative Francois Genoud.

“Let us mention only the incident of the treasure of the FLN, at the center of which the banker Francois Genoud may be found. Ramadan and the Muslim Brothers thought that they could play a part in the Algerian process as they had done in Palestine in 1947. Said Ramadan thus left Munich to settle in the city of Calvin. And so, with the financial support of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Said Ramadan established the Fraternity’s political outpost for Europe in Geneva . . .”

(Ibid.; p. 154.)

27. Said Ramadan’s son is also close to the UOIF.

“ . . . Like his brother Mr. Ramadan Tariq, Mr. Ramadan Hani is thus an important figure in the European Islamist movement and entertains close relations with the Union of Islamist Organizations of France (UOIF). This association has participated in demonstrations in favor of wearing the Islamic headscarf and its sympathies extend to the Palestinian movement Hamas.”

(Ibid.; p. 155.)

28. A key component of the British anti-war movement (the Muslim Association of Britain) is also closely affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood.

“The Muslim Association of Britain makes a similar point. ‘We don’t shy away from it,’ said representative Anas al-Tikriti. ‘Even Mr. Bush and Mr. Blair have highlighted it.’ The Muslim association has been criticized not only because of its emphasis on the Palestinian issue, but also because of its association with the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamist group banned in Egypt. The Egyptian government has accused the brotherhood of using rallies over the Middle East and Iraq to foment a revolt. The Muslim association’s Web site prominently mentions the Brotherhood’s president Muhammad Ma’Mun al-Hudayabi, who has praised suicide bombers in Israel and the anti-Jewish group Hamas, the Islamic Resistance Movement . . . Act Now to Stop War and End Racism, the coalition that orchestrated many of the region’s largest anti-war protests, is staunchly pro-Palestinian. ANSWER hopes to oppose war with Iraq while building support for the Palestinian cause. Large Palestinian flags are common at rallies.”

(“Palestinian Issue Adds Tension to Rallies” by Fawn Vrazo; San Jose Mercury News; 4/5/2003; p. 14A.)

29. Exemplifying what has come to be known as a “red/brown coalition” the International ANSWER organization has incorporated David Duke’s organization into its “coalition of the willing.” (In FTR#398 and FTR#401, we examined ANSWER’s connections to the Stalinist/Maoist WWP, its incorporation of Islamofascist elements associated with Ahmed Huber and the role of its point man Ramsey Clark in covering up the assassinations of President Kennedy, his brother Robert and Martin Luther King.) “The European-American Unity and Rights Organization (EURO) joined last month’s International Answer rally against war on Iraq. EURO’s national president is David Duke, a former leader of the Ku Klux Klan. His latest article on the EURO website claims that Israel was responsible for the attacks of 11 September. Another EURO feature is entitled ‘Understanding Jewish Supremacism.’”

(“War Games” by Kate Taylor; The Searchlight; April/2003 [No. 334.]; p. 11.)

30. Associates of Ahmed Huber, the German neo-Nazi NPD has involved itself with the German peace movement.

“Right-wing extremists are systematically trying to establish a presence in the German anti-war movement. In recent weeks, fascists have jumped on the peace campaign bandwagon in Halle/Saale, Anklam, Neuruppin, Greifswald and Munich. The peace movement has responded weakly, showing panic and helplessness or playing down and ignoring the presence of the far right . . . The anti-fascist and peace movements must meet this challenge urgently, especially now that the Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD) in particular, but also the militant Freie Kameradschaften and other extremists, are mobilizing in preparation for ‘Day X,’ the day that war on Iraq actually breaks out.”

(“Germany: Nazis Invade German Peace Movement; The Searchlight; April/2003 [No. 334.]; p. 25.)

31. Another German Islamist group is affiliated with the NPD.

“Hizb ut-Tahrir, which was founded by a Palestinian in 1953, came to the attention of the German government in the wake of the attacks on New York City and Washington on Sept. 11, 2001. Several of the hijackers and other figures in that plot belonged to radical Islamic groups in Hamburg. It is not clear if members of Hizb ut-Tahrir are linked to Al Qaeda, but its Web site calls on its members to fight against the United States because of what it calls America’s ‘crusade’ against Muslims. Last October, the group staged a demonstration at the Technical University of Berlin at which anti-American speeches were made. In what would seem to be an odd coalition, the group maintains at least some ties with a right-wing German fringe group, the National Democratic Party, some of whose members attended the Berlin rally. The common ground between the two groups would seem to be a hatred of Jews.”

(“German Police Raid an Islamic Militant Group” by Richard Bernstein; The New York Times; 4/11/2003; p. 1.)

32. In a manifestation of “politics makes strange bedfellows,” among the forces that sent volunteers to Iraq to fight against the invasion is Palestinian Islamic Jihad. Among the associates of that organization is Sami Al-Arian, whose activities precipitated the lawsuit filed by the heroic John Loftus. That lawsuit, in turn, led to the Operation Green Quest raids of 3/20/2002 and the lawsuit against the Saudi elite on behalf of survivors of the victims of the 9/11 attacks. Al-Arian’s milieu is inextricably linked to Grover Norquist, the Bush administration and the Republican ethnic outreach organization.

“ . . . In Lebanon on Wednesday, the group Fatah reported that hundreds of Palestinians from refugee camps there have gone to Iraq on suicide missions. Earlier, Palestinian Islamic Jihad said in Syria that it had positioned a dozen suicide terrorists inside Baghdad.”

(“Suicide Bombers Eager to Enlist” by Ellen Hale; USA Today; 4/4/2003; p. 6A.)

33. Although not part of the original broadcast, a very important article from The Wall Street Journal is presented here in order to underscore the significance of the growing Muslim Brotherhood influence described above. It will be many years before the substantive results of the Iraq war are evident. One of the fears that Mr. Emory has expressed about the Iraq situation concerns the possibility that the war is a trap set by the Underground Reich—designed to lure the U.S. into a conflict with the Muslim population of the Earth Island and (ultimately) its economic and/or physical destruction. The observations of the head of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt are worth noting in this regard. It is doubtful that the U.S. will acquiesce in the ascension of either the Muslim Brotherhood or militant Shiites associated with Iran. Should the advent of democracy in Iraq (or elsewhere) lead to such an eventuality, the results are likely to be altogether unpleasant.

“ . . . Yet with only a day to organize, the Muslim Brotherhood got tens of thousands of mourners to show up. ‘We have cellphones and the Internet and we live in the modern world,’ says the dead leader’s deputy, Mamun Hodaibi. ‘There was no secret to getting the word out.’ This organizational strength, despite years of suppression, spotlights a powerful conundrum in the Middle East. President Bush hopes that by establishing a representative government in Baghdad, the U.S. will spark a wave of democratic reform in other authoritarian nations in the region. Among other benefits, such a movement, by giving voice to the masses, might lessen the odds of their turning toward malign revolutionaries such as Al Qaeda. Yet the groups that are most organized, broad-based, and best positioned to benefit from any creeping Middle East democracy are Islamic fundamentalist forces such as the Muslim Brotherhood. They are the political elements the U.S. would least like to encourage. ‘I’m sure George Bush never meant to help us,’ says Mr. Nodaibi, 83 years old. ‘But he did.’”

(“If Iraq War Opens Mideast Politically, Islamists Are Ready” by Christopher Cooper; The Wall Street Journal; 5/1/2003; p. A1.)

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