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FTR #558 The Eichmann File

Recorded June 11, 2006

Listen: MP3 This program consists of one, 30-minute segment [1].

REALAUDIO [2]
NB: This stream contains both FTR #s 557 and 558 in sequence. Each is a 30 minute broadcast.

[3]

Adolf Eichmann

Introduction: This program supplements the recent disclosure that the CIA knew the whereabouts of Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann, but failed to act on that information. Eichmann was the overseer of the extermination of European Jewry. This broadcast sets forth information about Eichmann’s participation in a CIA-sponsored mission to train the Egyptian intelligence service and general staff in the early 1950’s. The disclosure of this information in a public forum following an arrest of Eichmann would have proved embarrassing, one possible reason for the CIA’s reticence on the subject. The Eichmann case also illustrates something of the texture of US political and national security bureaucracy: Even as elements of the CIA ran the Egyptian operation that allegedly employed Eichmann, other American officials noted the influx of some of the most heinous Nazi war criminals and reported on it to their superiors with great alarm. Functioning as a Trojan Horse for the Underground Reich, the Gehlen spy organization embodied a perpetuation of the Third Reich’s chain of political and military command. Evolving from the Third Reich’s Eastern Front intelligence service to become the CIA’s department of Russian and Eastern European affairs, the outfit run by General Reinhard Gehlen cleared its liaison with the Americans with [Hitler successor] Admiral Karl von Doenitz and [Gehlen’s “former” chief of staff] General Franz Halder. Thus, the Nazi command hierarchy remained essentially intact. Much of the program focuses on Otto von Bolschwing [4], Eichmann’s superior for a time. Von Bolschwing spent much of the postwar period working for Gehlen and the CIA. Most importantly, his protégé—Helene Von Damm—drew up the lists of personnel from which Ronald Reagan made his cabinet selections. In effect, von Bolschwing and von Damm oversaw the staffing of the US political bureaucracy with personnel selected according to their highly specialized taste!

Program Highlights Include: A list of the other prominent Nazi war criminals recruited by Skorzeny to serve alongside Eichmann in Egypt; Skorzeny’s development of the first Palestinian terrorist commandos while serving on the Gehlen/Dulles mission in Egypt; Skorzeny and Gehlen’s use of CIA-sponsored operations to spread a Nazi political agenda; von Bolschwing’s connections to the milieu of the Iran/Contra scandal, the German government’s postwar infiltration by rabid Nazis.

1. The program begins with an article about the CIA’s cover-up of the whereabouts of Adolph Eichmann. In charge of the relocation and murder of European Jewry during World War II, SS officer Eichmann was among the most wanted of Nazi war criminals. Kidnapped from his hiding place in Argentina by Israeli agents, Eichmann was tried, convicted and executed for his crimes. It turns out that the CIA knew where Eichmann had gone to ground by 1958, but kept it a secret.

“The Central Intelligence Agency took no action after learning the pseudonym and whereabouts of the fugitive Holocaust administrator Adolf Eichmann. In 1958, according to C.I.A. documents released Tuesday that shed new light on the spy agency’s use of former Nazis as informants after World War II. . . . The Eichmann papers are among 27,000 newly declassified pages released by the C.I.A. to the National Archives under Congressional pressure to make public files about former officials of Hitler’s regime later used as American agents. The material reinforces the view that most former Nazis gave American intelligence little of value and in some cases proved to be damaging double agents for the Soviet K.G.B. according to historians and members of the government panel that has worked to open the long-secret files.”

(“C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show” by Scott Shane; New York Times; 6/7/2006; p. A3.) [5]

2. “Elizabeth Holtzman, a former congresswoman from New York and member of the panel, the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group, said the documents showed that the C.I.A. ‘failed to lift a finger’ to hunt Eichmann and ‘force us to confront not only the moral harm but the practical harm’ of relying on intelligence from ex-Nazis. The United States government, preoccupied with the cold war, had no policy at the time of pursuing Nazi war criminals. The records also show that American intelligence officials protected many former Nazis for their perceived value in combating the Soviet threat.” (Idem.)

3. “But Ms. Holtzman, speaking at a news briefing at the National Archives on Tuesday, said information from the former Nazis was often tainted both by their ‘personal agendas’ and their vulnerability to blackmail. ‘Using bad people can have very bad consequences,’ Ms. Holtzman said. She and other group members suggested that the findings should be a cautionary tale for intelligence agencies today. As head of the Gestapo’s Jewish affairs office during the war, Eichmann put into effect the policy of extermination of European Jewry, promoting the use of gas chambers and having a hand in the murder of millions of Jews. Captured by the United States Army at the end of the war, he gave a false name and went unrecognized, hiding in Germany and Italy before fleeing to Argentina in 1950.” (Idem.)

4. Note that the West German government feared that exposing Eichmann could lead to disclosures about Hans Globke, Konrad Adenauer’s most trusted adviser. Globke drew up the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor—the law under which the extermination of the Jews was enacted! As will be seen in paragraph 11, the Adenauer/Globke government actively protected a CIA operation using many Nazi war criminals, including Eichmann. “Israeli agents hunting for Eichmann came to suspect that he was in Argentina but did not know his alias. They temporarily abandoned their search around the time, in March 1958, the West German intelligence told the C.I.A. that Eichmann had been living in Argentina as Clemens, said Mr. Naftali, of the University of Virginia. The West German government was wary of exposing Eichmann because officials feared what he might reveal about such figures as Hans Globke, a former Nazi government official then serving as a top national security adviser to Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Mr. Naftali said. In 1960, also at the request of West Germany, the C.I.A. persuaded Life magazine, which had purchased Eichmann’s memoir from his family, to delete a reference to Mr. Globke before publication, the documents show. . . .” (Idem.)

5. One possible reason for the CIA’s reluctance to disclose Eichmann’s whereabouts is the fact that Eichmann worked for the CIA as a “contract agent” in Egypt! (A contract agent is an operative who signs on to perform an individual assignment for the CIA—as opposed to a career employee or CIA “officer.”) Eichmann was one of a number of SS war criminals who worked to develop the Egyptian secret service and general staff on a mission that was launched under the auspices of General Reinhard Gehlen and his CIA boss, Allen Dulles. In charge of intelligence for the Eastern Front during World War II, Gehlen jumped to the CIA with his entire organization, which became the CIA’s department of Russian and Eastern European affairs, the de facto NATO intelligence organization and, ultimately the BND—the intelligence service for the Federal Republic of Germany. The Gehlen organization retained all of its Nazi character, utilizing many of the most notorious SS officers and war criminals. The Gehlen/Dulles operation that employed Eichmann was realized under the auspices of SS colonel Otto Skorzeny. Skorzeny had been in charge of commando operations for the Third Reich, was one of Hitler’s personal favorites and was a leader of the postwar ODESSA network—the deadly SS underground that operated around the world. For more about Skorzeny, ODESSA, Gehlen and other elements of discussion, use the search function [6] available on this website. Note how Skorzeny, operating under the auspices of CIA and Gehlen, was able to promote a Nazi and fascst agenda in Egypt! As we shall see below, the Gehlen organization was a Trojan Horse for the Underground Reich. “ . . . If there were any doubts that Skorzeny’s allegiance to the United States was of an opportunist nature and temporary, they were dispelled by his actions in Egypt and the Mideast. Even his deep hatred of the Soviets was forgotten when it interfered with his personal ambitions. Egypt presented Skorzeny the opportunity to promote fascism; to establish a Nazi clique whose influence would be felt by the West German government to restore German prestige in the Mideast, and to become a wealthy man. He didn’t allow the opportunity to pass . . .”
(Skorzeny: Hitler’s Commando; by Glenn Infield; St. Martin’s Press [HC]; Copyright 1981 by Glenn B. Infield; ISBN; 0-312-72777-1; p. 205.) [7]

6. A CIA-supported coup in Egypt ousted King Farouk and replaced him with General Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The latter eventually became Egypt’s head of state. Dulles wanted to retain U.S. influence in Egypt and turned to Gehlen to recruit personnel suitable for the job. Gehlen turned to Skorzeny and his father in law Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht, the American-born former finance minister of Germany. “ . . . The CIA, under the influence of Allen Dulles, selected Egyptian army General Mohammed Naguib to head the government. . . . The takeover of the country by Naguib, with Nasser playing the role of a shadowy dictator in the background, opened the door wide for the three silent conspirators of Hitler’s regime: Gehlen, Schacht, and Skorzeny. As Gehlen stated in his memoirs: ‘We found Arab countries particularly willing to embrace Germans with an ostensibly ‘Nazi’ past.’ And Naguib was quick to ask for help. Since his revolt had the backing of the CIA and he was aware that Gehlen was collaborating with the U.S. intelligence agency, his request for someone to train his security forces went to Pullach, Gehlen’s headquarters south of Munich. Gehlen and Schacht were in complete agreement that the man for the job was Otto Skorzeny. Dulles, aware of Skorzeny’s anti-Soviet role during the immediate postwar years when the Western nations desperately needed help, concurred. Skorzeny went to Egypt as Naguib’s military advisor. It was a decision the United States would regret in later years.” (Ibid.; pp. 205-206.)

7. Again, note that the Gehlen/Skorzeny/Schacht milieu was able to pursue an essentially Nazi agenda under the auspices of CIA/Dulles. As will be seen below, many U.S. officials were unaware of the Skorzeny mission, and reported on developments in Egypt with great alarm. “There was, of course, another reason former Nazis were quick to accept the Egyptian invitation. It once again pitted them against the Jews and the newly established Israeli nation. As the Judische Rundschau stated in 1951: ‘As for Skorzeny’s anti-Semitic and fascist propensities, this is undoubtedly true. Skorzeny readily admits his strong anti-Semitism.’ Gehlen, too, had reservations about the relationship between the new West German government and Israel. ‘I have always regarded it as something of a tragedy that West Germany was inevitably dragged into an alliance with the state of Israel against the Arab countries,’ he stated in his memoirs. ‘I always regarded their [Arabs] traditional friendship for Germany as of immense value for our national reconstruction. And at the request of Allen Dulles and the CIA, we at Pullach did our best to inject life and expertise into the Egyptian secret service, supplying them with the former SS officers I have mentioned.’” (Ibid.; p. 207.)

8. The personnel with whom Skorzeny’s Nazis worked were openly admiring of the Third Reich. “If there was any doubt that Naguib was pro-German, his public statements cleared up the misunderstanding. ‘I want you to believe me when I say that I have not changed the great admiration I have for the Germans. Their efficiency, their extraordinary gifts as scientists and technicians, and their loyalty are quite unique. I have been noticing all these qualities in recent times, watching the work of the German officers and experts in my army.’ Dr. Noreddine Tarraf, one of Naguib’s most important supporters and later Minister of Health, was even more explicit when speaking of the Germans, particularly the Nazis. ‘Hitler is the man of my life. The German dictator had been an ideal leader who dedicated his life to the realization of his noble ambition. He never lived for himself but for Germany and the German people. I have always wished to live like him.’” (Idem.)

9. “Skorzeny felt at ease among Egyptian officials with this attitude. His first task was to organize a staff of former SS and Wehrmacht officers to train the Egyptian army and security forces. He selected carefully, making certain that each officer he brought to Egypt was a diehard Nazi, an expert military tactician, and was anti-Semitic. Among those recruited by Skorzeny were SS General Oskar Dirlewanger, who had commanded a brigade composed of poachers, criminals, and men under the sentence of court-martial during the Warsaw ghetto uprising and whose actions against the Jews had earned him the nickname ‘Butcher of War saw’; SS Colonel Adolf Eichmann, the officer Himmler charged with the destruction of millions of Jews and who later would be kidnapped from Argentina by the Israeli secret service and smuggled back to Israel to stand trial [Italics are Mr. Emory’s]; SS General Wilhelm Farmbacher; Panzer General Oskar Munzel; Leopold Gleim, former chief of Hitler’s personal guard and Gestapo security chief of German-occupied Poland; and Joachim Daemling, former chief of the Gestapo in Dusseldorf. To handle medical problems, Skorzaeny recruited Dr. Hans Eisele, who had been chief medical officer at Buchenwald concentration camp, and Heinrich Willerman, former medical director at Dachau.” (Ibid.; pp. 207-208.)

10. The paragraphs that follow are of great significance. Indicative of he multi-polar texture of the U.S. political and national security bureaucracies, many American operatives reported with great alarm on the Nazi recrudescence in Egypt. They were unaware of the CIA/Dulles/Gehlen/Skorzeny collaboration. “U.S. officials, many of them unaware that Allen Dulles had encouraged Gehlen to provide Naguib with German military advisers, became worried when so many infamous Nazi officers appeared in Egypt. Even Dulles became concerned when it was reported to him that Skorzeny was meeting often with Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Egyptian army lieutenant colonel who seemed to be giving more orders than Naguib. A secret letter, Embassy Dispatch 2276, from Jefferson Caffery of the U.S. Embassy in Cairo to the Department of State in Washington, indicates that inquiries concerning Skorzeny’s activities in Egypt were being conducted. ‘On June 14, the local press announced that Otto Skorzeny had an hour’s interview with Gamal Abdel Nasser on June 12. Aside from recalling that he was in charge of the special commando unit which kidnapped Mussolini and pointing out his experience in the training of commandos, the press gave no further details. The Counsel of the German Embassy states that he and his colleagues had no previous information concerning the visit. They are trying now through contacts among the German Military Mission to find out what Skorzeny is up to. The German Counselor remarked that it was difficult to keep track of this individual because he resides in Spain, but the German Embassy knew that when he was here the last time, four or five months ago, he talked to the Egyptians about the supplying of small arms and the training of the commandos. On the general subject of the activities of German officers in Egypt, the German Counselor said that a foreign office official came to Egypt recently to investigate them following Sir Winston Churchill’s speech in which he mentioned their activities. . . .’” (Ibid.; pp. 208-209.)

11. Note that the German government, under Konrad Adenauer and his eminence grise Hans Globke (see paragraph 4), actively protected the Skorzeny operation. And Eichmann was used as part of the Skorzeny operation! It is fascinating to note that the first Palestinian terrorist unites were formed under the tutelage of Skorzeny! “ . . . This secret dispatch and others that followed from Egypt indicate that U.S. officials and even CIA agents were woefully unaware of what the Nazis were really doing in Egypt. The Adenauer government was well aware of Skorzeny’s presence in Egypt and condoned his actions on behalf of the new Federal Republic of Germany. The pretended ‘ignorance’ of the German Counselor was merely a face-saving move and an effort to deceive the U.S. Embassy. . . . Skorzeny was already training an Arab foreign legion in commando tactics. This secret unit was comprised of 400 former Nazis and Gestapo veterans and used a training base at Bilbeis in the Delta. He also helped organize and train the first Palestine terrorists and planned their initial forays into Israel by way of the Gaza Strip about 1953-1954. . . . [Emphasis added.]” (Ibid.; p. 209.)

12. Excerpting FTR#180 [8], the program sets forth the fact that General Gehlen cleared all the initiation of his intelligence operations with the Americans with Admiral Karl Doenitz (political successor to Hitler as head of state) and General Franz Halder (Gehlen’s chief of staff during the war.) As Author Carl Oglesby notes, this indicates that the Nazi chain of command was still in effect, even while Gehlen was ostensibly working for the Americans! As set forth in FTR#305 [9] and FTR#180 [8], Gehlen cleared his actions with General Mueller, Bormann’s chief of security.
(“The Secret Treaty of Fort Hunt” by Carl Oglesby; Covert Action Information Bulletin [Issue#35]; excerpted from AFA#37, recorded in August, 1992.) [10]

13. One of the most important Nazis brought into the country through the Dulles-Gehlen milieu was Otto von Bolschwing. Later, his protégé Helene von Damm became the person who selected the list from which all of Ronald Reagan’s cabinet appointments were made. Note that von Bolschwing not only replaced Eichmann as intelligence officer in the Middle East but also was his superior for a period of time. (For more about von Bolschwing, see—among other programs—FTR#’s 332, 399, 465.) “Eichmann was replaced on the Middle Eastern scene by a far more skilled intelligence officer, Otto von Bolschwing. Before World War II, von Bolschwing set up an import-export business in Palestine as a cover for his espionage activities. He was an educated man from a good family and an enthusiastic supporter of Hitler. After the war, von Bolschwing became one of Allen Dulles’s senior agents in the CIA.”
(The Secret War Against the Jews: How Western Espionage Betrayed the Jewish People; by Mark Aarons and John Lotus; St. Martin’s Press [HC]; Copyright 1994 by Mark Aarons; ISBN 0-312-11057-X; p. 46.)

14. “Dulles helped von Bolschwing emigrate to California, where he established a business association with Helene von Damm, later Ronald Reagan’s ambassador to Austria. In later years, his business went bankrupt and he was forced to surrender his American citizenship on the grounds that he was a Nazi war criminal.” (Idem.)

15. Next, the program reviews Von Bolschwing’s career in the United States, after he was brought here by Allen Dulles. Von Bolschwing worked for Gehlen and later became the head of a parallel network to Gehlen’s in the United States.
(“Ex-Nazi’s Brilliant U.S. Career Strangled in a Web of Lies” by Pete Carey; San Jose Mercury News; 11/20/81; pp.1A-24A.) [11]

16. In addition to his stewardship of an electronics firm TCI (and its subsidiary International Imaging Systems), von Bolschwing employed his protégé, Ms. von Damm in the firm. (Idem.)

17. The broadcast highlights Helene von Damm’s role in selecting the lists of personnel that Ronald Reagan used to select his cabinet appointments.
(“Big Promotion for Reagan’s Ex-Secretary” San Francisco Chronicle; 8/3/82.)