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FTR #588 The Aliens Are Coming, The Aliens Are Coming—Not

Recorded March 4, 2007
MP3 Side 1 [1] | Side 2 [2]
REALAUDIO [3]

Introduction: Further developing Mr. Emory’s long-standing inquiry into the political implications of the UFO phenomenon and the ET myth [4], the broadcast sets forth remarks by both the British defense ministry’s former chief UFO investigator and a former Canadian defense minister. Both RAF officer Pope and former defense minister Paul Hellyer believe we have been visited by space aliens, arriving in UFOs! Most of the broadcast highlights research indicating that UFOs are real, but that they are from right here on earth! After delineating German aeronautical research during the latter phase of World War II, the broadcast notes Vesco’s hypothesis that the first true UFOs were developed in Canada by subsidiaries of British aircraft manufacturers, and were flown over the northern United States in the postwar period to convince the U.S. to share atomic bomb technology with their British allies. Concluding with discussion of the possible implications of the deliberate manifestation of UFO technology misrepresented as being from outer space, the program notes the vulnerability of a disillusioned, economically and ecologically beset human race to accepting falsified belief in “salvation from above”—in this case “our brothers from space.” Is it possible that Vesco’s hypothesis may be related to former British and Canadian defense officials “leaking” information about visits from space aliens!! Could this be part of an enormous psy-op?!

Program Highlights Include: Discussion of the anti-radar Feuerball, the probable cause of the reports of Foo Fighters by Allied airmen in World War II; analysis of the Kugelblitz, another Nazi anti-aircraft device that was an antecedent of the UFOs; reports of humans piloting the UFOs that appeared in the immediate aftermath of World War II; the migration of British aviation technology to Canada after World War II; the concentration of that aviation technology in the Pacific Northwest.

1. Beginning with an assertion from a former British officer who was in charge of UFO investigations for the British Ministry of Defense, the program notes his [purported] fear that “space aliens” could attack at any time. Note that Mr. Emory does not believe in the existence of space aliens, but does believe “UFO’s” to be real and of terrestrial origin. His fear is that these devices may be used to govern human behavior as part of some kind of psy-op. CORRECTION: COLONEL POPE WAS NOT THE HEAD OF THE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE. MR. EMORY MISINTERPRETED THE HEADLINE ELEMENT “FORMER MoD CHIEF” TO MEAN THAT HE HEADED THE MINISTRY ITSELF. POPE WAS IN OF CHARGE OF THE MINISTRY’S UFO INVESTIGATIONS ONLY. NOTE THAT PAUL HELLYER [DISCUSSED IN PARAGRAPHS 2 AND 3] WAS THE CANADIAN DEFENSE MINISTER AND A DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER. “UFO sightings and alien visitors tend to be solely the reserve of sci-fi movies. So when a former MoD chief warns that the country could be attacked by extraterrestrials at any time, you may be forgiven for feeling a little alarmed. During his time as head of the Ministry of Defense UFO project, Nick Pope was persuaded into believing that other life forms may visit Earth and, more specifically, Britain. His concern is that ‘highly credible’ sightings are simply dismissed. And he complains that the project he once ran is now ‘virtually closed’ down, leaving the country ‘wide open’ to aliens. Mr Pope decided to speak out about his worries after resigning from his post at the Directorate of Defense Security at the MoD this week. ‘The consequences of getting this one wrong could be huge,’ he said. . . .”
(“ ‘Aliens Could Attack at any Time’ Warns Former MoD Chief” by Charlotte Gill; Daily Mail; 11/10/2006) [5]

2. Echoing Pope’s concern about the possibility of an “intergalactic war” is former Canadian Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister Paul Hellyer. “A former Canadian Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister under Pierre Trudeau has joined forces with three Non-governmental organizations to ask the Parliament of Canada to hold public hearings on Exopolitics — relations with ‘ETs.’ By ‘ETs,’ Mr. Hellyer and these organizations mean ethical, advanced extraterrestrial civilizations that may now be visiting Earth. On September 25, 2005, in a startling speech at the University of Toronto that caught the attention of mainstream newspapers and magazines, Paul Hellyer, Canada’s Defense Minister from 1963-67 under Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Prime Minister Lester Pearson, publicly stated: ‘UFOs, are as real as the airplanes that fly over your head.’ Mr. Hellyer went on to say, ‘I’m so concerned about what the consequences might be of starting an intergalactic war, that I just think I had to say something.’ Hellyer revealed, ‘The secrecy involved in all matters pertaining to the Roswell incident was unparalleled. The classification was, from the outset, above top secret, so the vast majority of U.S. officials and politicians, let alone a mere allied minister of defense, were never in-the-loop.’ Hellyer warned, ‘The United States military are preparing weapons which could be used against the aliens, and they could get us into an intergalactic war without us ever having any warning. He stated, ‘The Bush administration has finally agreed to let the military build a forward base on the moon, which will put them in a better position to keep track of the goings and comings of the visitors from space, and to shoot at them, if they so decide.’ . . .”
(“Former Canadian Minister Of Defense Asks Canadian Parliament To Hold Hearings On Relations With Alien ‘ET’ Civilizations” [PRWeb].) [6]

3. Going still further, Hellyer has stated that “alien technology” could give us the means to combat global warming. “A former Canadian defense minister is demanding governments worldwide disclose and use secret alien technologies obtained in alleged UFO crashes to stem climate change, a local paper said Wednesday. ‘I would like to see what (alien) technology there might be that could eliminate the burning of fossil fuels within a generation … that could be a way to save our planet,’ Paul Hellyer, 83, told the Ottawa Citizen. Alien spacecrafts would have traveled vast distances to reach Earth, and so must be equipped with advanced propulsion systems or used exceptional fuels, he told the newspaper. Such alien technologies could offer humanity alternatives to fossil fuels, he said, pointing to the enigmatic 1947 incident in Roswell, New Mexico — which has become a shrine for UFO believers — as an example of alien contact. ‘We need to persuade governments to come clean on what they know. Some of us suspect they know quite a lot, and it might be enough to save our planet if applied quickly enough,’ he said. Hellyer became defense minister in former prime minister Lester Pearson’s cabinet in 1963, and oversaw the controversial integration and unification of Canada’s army, air force and navy into the Canadian Forces. He shocked Canadians in September 2005 by announcing he once saw a UFO.”
(“UFO Science Key to Halting Climate Change: Former Canadian Defense Minister” [Agence France Press]; Yahoo.com; 2/28/2007.) [7]

4. Delving into the topic of the historical development of unconventionally-shaped flying machines by the species homo sapiens, the program highlights the so-called “Foo Fighters.” Named by Allied airmen [“Foo” is a corruption of “feu”—the French word for “fire”], the Foo Fighters were large, glowing balls that flew after bombers on night raids into Germany. Upon the Foo Fighters’ appearance, the bombers’ radar promptly malfunctioned. Author Vesco contends that the Foo Fighters were an anti-radar device developed by the Luftwaffe and named the “Feuerball” or Fireball. [Vesco was in charge of Research and Development for the Italian air force for a time.] “ . . . Subsequently other flyers encountered the mysterious Foo Fighters, but having learned their lesson from the fate of their colleagues, they never mentioned them in their flight reports. Pilots McFalls and Baker were the ones who broke this imposed silence. They too were from the 415th Squadron, and their very short but detailed report forced Air Force intelligence to consider the matter seriously: ‘At 0600 [on December 22], near Hagenau, at 10,000 feet altitude, two very bright lights climbed toward us from the ground. They leveled off and stayed on the tail of our plane. They were huge bright orange lights. They stayed there for two minutes. On my tail all the time. They were under perfect control [by operators on the ground]. Then they turned away from us, and the fire seemed to go out.’ The rest of the report was censored. Apparently it went on to mention the plane’s radar and its sudden malfunctioning. Two nights later the same pilots were flying over the Rhine when they were ‘attacked’ by a glowing red ball that suddenly ‘changed into an airplane which did a wing over! Then it dived and disappeared.’ Additional censored lines. Knowledge of these facts, which were being increasingly repeated, finally caught the attention of military publications. During the last days of December 1944, stories were leaked to the American Legion Magazine, which published the personal opinions of several U.S. Intelligence officers and suggested that the Foo Fighters were radio-controlled devices that the Germans sent up to baffle the radar of the night raiders. Picking up the story, the newspapers dug up Hitler’s threatening speeches boasting of the imminent use of certain secret weapons capable of compromising or at least delaying the Allied victory. . . .”
(Intercept—But Don’t Shoot; [8] by Renato Vesco; Grove Press [HC]; English translation Copyright 1971 by Grove Press; Library of Congress Number 76-125004; p. 82.) 

5. Vesco believes that another immediate forerunner of the “UFO’s” was another Luftwaffe technical innovation–the Kubelblitz or Ball Lightning. “ . . . Parallel with the formation of the special S.S. Air Corps, the S.S. Technical General Staff had not only espoused Marshal Goering’s pressing demands for the preparation of the ‘decisive’ fighter, but had implemented them by having all the aeronautic advances of the past two years sent to the industrial combine of the ‘G. Werke.’ Thus the principle of the symmetrical circular aircraft was combined with direct gyroscopic stabilization; synthetic fire-damp was combined with the multiple-batteried blower cannon; a gelatinous organic metallic hypercombustible was combined with the total reaction turbine; television-controlled flying was combined with vertical take-off and landing; armor that was sensitive to small-caliber projectiles and radio control that was free of enemy jamming were combined with the active blinding of enemy radar; infrared search ‘eyes’ were combined with electrostatic weapon firing. This marked the rapid development of the Feuerball, which finally became a weapon. The Kugelblitz (Ball Lightning), which apparently for greater safety combined the electrostatic firing device with an analogous short-wave device manufactured by the Patent-Verwertungs Gesellschaft of Salzburg, lumped together in a single compact mass the wings, tail, and fuselage of ordinary planes, but it had nothing in common with them in either form or performance. It was the first example of the ‘jet-lift’ aircraft. . . . ”
(Ibid.; pp. 156-157.)

6. Next, Vesco sets forth some of the many UFO sightings in North America in the immediate aftermath of World War II. Among those was the sighting of a formation of UFO’s, sighted by a P-38 reconnaissance plane over Yellowstone Park. Note that the P-38 pilot identified an apparently human pilot of one of the aircraft! “ . . .‘The mysterious aircraft seemed to be made of aluminum. They were pearl-gray in color and on the upper side they all had a shining bubble of some transparent material.’ ‘Did you see who was flying them? And why didn’t you take any pictures?’ ‘We wasted some time watching them fly by and trying to determine whether there was anyone on board. They moved quicker than we could act!’ ‘Did the leader by any chance graze your plane?’ ‘No, absolutely not. I have no idea why he fell. Perhaps he was already having mechanical trouble or perhaps he accidentally got into my slipstream and was torn apart. As I said, we were going pretty fast.’ The photographer confirmed that he did not have time to aim his large vertical camera at the formation because the objects flew by too rapidly, and his report on the event coincided in its main particulars with that of the pilot (who was described by his direct superiors as a ‘serious and honest officer, who takes his job seriously’). He added that since he had concentrated his attention on one of the craft that had briefly approached the P-38 more closely than the others, it seemed to him that he had glimpsed a man, the pilot, inside, lying flat in the cabin and looking out the glass porthole in the front of the bubble. . . .”
(Ibid.; p. 14.)

7. One of the primary theses of Vesco’s book is the contention that the UFO’s are postwar British developments of German aeronautical prototypes. Vesco documents a huge, westward migration of aviation technology in Canada in the immediate aftermath of World War II. He is of the opinion that Canadian subsidiaries of British aircraft manufacturers were charged with the [successful] development of the German innovations. According to Vesco, the appearance of these devices over the Northern United States was initially intended to demonstrate to the Americans that it was in their best interest to share the technology for the atomic bomb, because the British, too, had some remarkable technology to share. Is it possible that Vesco’s hypothesis may be related to former British and Canadian defense officials “leaking” information about visits from space aliens!! Could this be part of an enormous psy-op?! “ . . . Among the fragmentary news stories that reported the transfer by the Canadian government of the Turbo-Research Ltd. plants to the Hawker Siddeley Group there were several that referred to the imminence of other radical changes in the local aircraft industry, which because of war production needs had grown quite large, especially in the eastern part of the country, over the preceding five years. Plans were laid for a sort of gigantic ‘migration’ to the western area of the Dominion, with the formation of research, testing and production centers—centering on the urban area of Vancouver—for new types of planes and engines that would be ‘Canadian designed and Canadian built’ and for the local production of ‘special fuels.’ The whole thing was to be accomplished in record time. The greatest impulse toward this development, which was rapidly brought to a conclusion, came in the spring of 1946, when Professor B. S, Shenstone—described by the technical journals as a ‘Canadian scientist with a brilliant scientific background’ and an expert in, among other things, problems dealing with the control of the boundary layer—was named general manager and technical assistant to vice-president W. N. Deisher of Avro-Canada. Previously he had been an assistant director in the Ministry of Aircraft Production’s office in charge of the development of projects relating to postwar air transport. But we had an authoritative indication of what was developing in Canada in the fall of 1945, when a brilliant aeronautical future was openly being predicted in England for its overseas dominion. For example, The Aeroplane wrote: ‘The recent purchase [July 1] of the Victory Aircraft, Ltd., plant at Malton, Ontario, which is at present engaged in the production of the Lincoln bomber, by the Hawker-Siddeley Co., might mean that Canada will become the British Empire’s aircraft production center within the next ten years.’ At the beginning of 1946 the British group also took over the plants of Turbo-Research of Leavside and put them under the administration of its Gas Turbine Division in Malton. Turbo-Research was a government body created in 1944 on the model of the British Power Jets for the study of local problems of jet propulsion. It had an experimental station in Winnipeg. . . . .”
(Ibid.; pp.248-249.)

8. “Actually, even the present twenty million population, for the most part inhabiting the two coastal areas, on a land almost the size of a continent (it is nine-tenths the size of Europe) comprises a decidedly modest human nucleus when compared with the tens of millions who live in countries with a long aeronautical tradition, such as England, Italy, France, and Germany. Describing Canada as ‘the Promised Land of Aviation,’ the British aeronautical writer J. II. Slovens noted in 1952 that ‘the principal aircraft companies (A. V. Roe, Canadair, De Havilland) that build aircraft of their own design number two in Toronto and one in Montreal. Other minor specialist firms that contribute to making those places the centers of national aeronautical production are located in both of these cities and in their surrounding areas. The British Fairey Aviation Company has a well-known factory near Halifax in Nova Scotia. Other islands of air technology are on the Niagara peninsula, in Fort William, Winnipeg and Vancouver. The largest builder is, however, A. V. Roe Canada, Ltd., or Avro-Canada, which derives from the ‘shade workshop’ of Victory Aircraft Ltd. and is a branch of the British Hawker Siddeley Group. Nevertheless, it has an independent board of directors, like the other divisions, over which Sir Frank Spriggs and Sir Roy Dobson exercise only a general policy control. Other industries cover the whole field of accessories, instruments and aircraft materials. Hundreds of firms produce various parts according to the designs and standards of aircraft construction. Finally, Canada produces steel and light alloys for all its own needs making use of its vast mineral deposits. There is also a ‘pilot plant’ for the production of titanium. Canada possesses complete scientific and experimental equipment in the National Research Council of Ottawa. Wind tunnels, laboratories that are equipped to examine materials and construct models make it possible to carry out any kind of experiment. Another sign of Canada’s determination not to remain behind in aeronautical progress is the fact that there are two electronic computers in Toronto: one at Avro-Canada and the other at the university, which also has a hypersonic wind tunnel in Downsview. During the winter, industrial production remains unaffected, for the factories are all well-heated. Even the hangars are kept at a temperature of 70 degrees, avoiding drafts in a way that seems miraculous. The working conditions, for example, are better than those in the average British factory, and it is common practice to work in shirtsleeves during the winter, both in the offices and in the shops. The cold, however, makes it necessary that all the planes be kept under roof.’”
(Ibid.; pp. 250-252.)

9. Next, the program sets forth Vesco’s research on the “Avro Car”—a circular fighter aircraft developed by the A.V. Roe company—a subsidiary of Hawker-Siddley. Although the Avro-Car officially did not achieve operational status, Vesco believes that is disinformation. He feels that the Avro-Car was actually successfully developed. “At the beginning of 1953, when no one was thinking about flying discs, they suddenly began to appear in the columns of Canadian newspapers. On February 11, the Toronto Star announced in a banner headline that flying saucers should no longer be confined to the realm of fantasy, because they were actually being developed in one of Avro-Canada’s hangars at the Malton airfield. Two columns of details and the news that the device was supposed to have a top speed of 1500 mph gave the clear impression that the writer had obtained his information from a; very well-informed, if not completely candid, source that obviously worked somewhere in the powerful company. Certain government experts who were immediately interviewed by reporters from the nearby capital sought to extricate themselves from the awkward situation by evasively declaring: ‘The Defense authorities are examining all ideas, even revolutionary ones, that have been suggested for the development of new types of supersonic aircraft, also including flying discs. This, however, is still in the beginning phase of research and it will be a number of months before we are able to reach anything positive and seven or more years before we come to actual production.’ According to the Star, on February 16 C. D. Howe, minister of defense production, told the House of Commons that ‘the government was constantly studying ‘new concepts and new designs’ for fighters . . . adding weight to reports that Avro is even now working on a mock-up model of a ‘flying saucer’ capable of flying 1500 miles per hour and climbing straight up in the air.’ . . . ”
(Ibid.; pp. 252-253.)

10. More of Vesco’s research on the Avro-Car: “ . . . . For some time the leaks continued along the same lines, although without adding anything new, favored by the fact that the organ of British military aviation, the R.A.F. Review, reprinted almost the whole of the original Canadian inquiry, thereby conferring, so to speak, a semiofficial status upon the news.’ As a precaution, however, the review felt obliged to state that ‘none of the opinions expressed in the article’ had been confirmed by the Air Ministry. In fact, all during the period that the news was breaking, the Ministry carefully kept its lips sealed. The Canadian flying saucer (the one in the newspapers) did not concern the Ministry, since, luckily for it, the truth about the real flying saucers of the R.C.A.F. was not even touched. At this point began the discussions that played directly into the hands of the authorities that were directly interested in keeping the secret. At the beginning of June, the daily information bulletin of the Swiss review Interavia reported that on the basis of inquiries made by its Canadian correspondent, the A. V. Roe flying disc was probably not in fact an airplane in the shape of a disc but, more simply, a delta-winged jet fighter-interceptor, that is, it had the shape of a triangle. In other words, it was a further development of the well-known Avro 707 heavy fighter and the Avro 698 Vulcan bomber powered with four jet engines. The correspondent of the review was mistaken (or had he been deliberately misled?), since the firm had for some time been working on at least a third example of a delta-winged plane: the supersonic CF-log Arrow, a twin-jet all-weather fighter of thirty-five tons, the testing date of which had, however, been scheduled at the earliest for the end of 1955. Evidently this project had nothing to do with the discs, which were several years in advance of it and had a radically different shape. And the proof of it is that when the press had completely forgotten the subject, a new, very brief story that appeared in Toronto on November 1 unexpectedly brought the subject up again. The story read: ‘A mock-up of the Canadian flying saucer, the highly secret aircraft in whose existence few believe, was yesterday shown to a group of twenty-five American experts, including military officers and scientists.’ Further news on the Avro pseudo-disc, which had in the meantime been officially baptized the Avro Omega, came on the following October 21, when the press declared that the aircraft had been under study for at least two years and that the cost of the prototype was reported to have been in the area of $200 million. According to the papers, the Canadian government was planning to form entire squadrons of flying saucers for the defense of Alaska and the frozen reaches of the Far North. Their claimed low cost of manufacture and maintenance, their ability to intercept any high-speed plane in operation and to take off vertically, made them the ideal weapon for operations in wooded areas of Canada and in the subarctic and polar regions, for they were ‘completely independent of vulnerable runways or any fixed special equipment.’ The press of the Western world naturally received the news with a great sense of relief, and it unreservedly proclaimed: ‘The flying discs are real!’”
(Ibid.; pp. 254-255.)

11. Concluding with author Jacques Vallee’s reflections on the political and sociological implications of the UFO phenomenon, the program excerpts The Messengers of Deception. Vallee maintains that UFO contactees are being deceived into believing that their experiences are encounters with “space” beings. It is his view that the propagation of the belief in space aliens is a deliberate deception, being perpetuated by people right here on earth. “ . . . If we are not dealing with space visitors at all, but with powerful imagery projected in order to alter individual belief systems, then the dream-like, hallucinatory nature of the experience begins to make more sense. We could even imagine that the object is a form of natural energy; that close exposure to it triggered the vision; and that the most important question to ask is, what effect do such visions have on the society around the witnesses? Let us not forget that the society in question is badly in need of ‘space brothers,’ and has lost much of its faith in the scientific genius of mankind. Such is the social matrix within which we must consider an experience like Helen’s abduction. Certain factors combine to suggest we should believe that she was interviewed by space creatures, but all the facts taken together suggest a different, more subtle interpretation: what she though was a ‘contact’ may have been messengers of deception. Witnesses to close encounters with UFOs give reports similar to this one in case after case. The phenomenon involves more than a simple craft using an advanced form of propulsion; it involves a technology that can distort the observer’s sense of reality.”
(The Messengers of Deception [9]; by Jacques Vallée; And/Or Books 1979; Copyright 1979 by Jacques Vallee; ISBN 0-915904-38-1; pp. 62-63.)

12. “We already have human technologies that are both physical and ‘psychic’ (in the sense of influencing the consciousness of an observer). An example of such a technology is given, very simply, by your television set. There is no question that it is physical. You can talk about its size, volume, weight, and temperature. But if you turn it on, it will begin to control your awareness in peculiar ways. You will observe scenes that, as far as you can tell, could be either ‘real’ or faked. You may be a witness to an actual crime committed right now, or to something that happened years ago. You may also believe a scene to be absolutely real, when in fact it is actually staged in a studio in Hollywood. Based on what you can observe, you have no way to know the truth, even if you have a Nobel Prize in physics. Besides, your television set influences you in other ways. It determines what toothpaste you use, how you shave, who you go to bed with, and how you will vote in the next election. In some respects I think UFOs are similar to television sets. They are physical objects, the products of a technology, but they are also something else: the tools of a major cultural change. I think UFOs are perpetrating a deception by presenting their so-called ‘occupants’ as being messengers from outer space, and I suspect there are groups of people on earth exploiting this deception. [Emphasis added.]. . .”
(Ibid.; p. 63.)

13. In addition to noting the irrationality of the contactee belief system, Vallee notes the potential for that viewpoint for disrupting a badly disillusioned humanity is enormous. Of particular significance for our purposes are Vallee’s reflections about the effect of noted public figures giving voice to beliefs in “ET’s.” Vallee’s book was published in 1979. One wonders what he would say about the comments of Pope and Hellyer documented above?! “ . . . The new belief is completely lacking in logic. That is the key to its power. It serves to keep scientists away. The more absurd the statement, the stronger its effect. When the Establishment is rational, absurdity is dynamite. Through the contactees, the Manipulators are undermining both religion and science. Contact with alien intelligence is a social issue, too. Yesterday any politician would have avoided UFOs like the plague. Today men like Jimmy Carter proclaim that they have seen unidentified lights in the sky and are ‘no longer laughing at those who report flying saucers.’ Various ‘revelations’ by former government employees have suggested that evidence of extraterrestrial visitors may exist in Washington. Even a man like Arthur Lundahl, former director of the Photographic Interpretation Center of the CIA, has stated publicly that he had examined a number of UFO films for the government and had judged them to be authentic. Tomorrow someone might announce that proof has been found for the existence of alien life forms. Such an announcement would make possible astonishing social, political, and economic changes. To pave the way for such changes is the stated goal of many contactees. Their purpose is Utopia today. It could be reality tomorrow. . . .”
(Ibid.; p. 64.)

14. In light of the recent comments by Pope and Hellyer, one can only wonder whether humanity is being prepared for some kind of deliberate manifestation of these technologies.

“ . . . The propensity of most scientists to ignore these [UFO ‘contactee’] phenomena—or even to ridicule indiscriminately those who report them—has created an unfortunate gap that these new sects are naturally beginning to fill. The question that remains to discover how serious a threat these groups represent to established social structures. . . . Now, suppose the arrival of these alleged visitors was a hoax, a deliberate deception. Would we ever know?’ Great social changes often come from the least expected area. I believe that the most powerful factor that can change a society’s structures is not a simple terrestrial ‘enemy’ beyond its borders. This change can come from within, if the gap between the scientific elite and the frustrated public gets wider and is deliberately exploited. The instruments of this profound change are the contactees, the believers in celestial interventions of all kinds, the scouts of cosmic armies. . . .” (Ibid.; p. 66.)