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How Did Stieg Larsson Die?

Comment: In FTR #702, we examined the political career of Tiger Woods’ mother-in-law (former Swedish Immigration Minister Barbro Holmberg, accused of sheltering war criminals) and Sweden’s historical connections to fascism. In the December issue of “Vanity Fair,” Christopher Hitchens asks whether some of those connections may have manifested themselves in the death of noted Swedish author Stieg Larsson.

“The Author Who Played with Fire” by Christopher Hitchens; Vanity Fair; 12/2009.

I suppose it’s justifiable to describe “best-selling” in quasi-tsunami terms because when it happens it’s partly a wall and partly a tide: first you see a towering, glistening rampart of books in Costco and the nation’s airports and then you are hit by a series of succeeding waves that deposit individual copies in the hands of people sitting right next to you. I was slightly wondering what might come crashing in after Hurricane Khaled. I didn’t guess that the next great inundation would originate not in the exotic kite-running spaces at the roof of the world but from an epicenter made almost banal for us by Volvo, Absolut, Saab, and ikea.

Yet it is from this society, of reassuring brand names and womb-to-tomb national health care, that Stieg Larsson conjured a detective double act so incongruous that it makes Holmes and Watson seem like siblings. I say “conjured” because Mr. Larsson also drew upon the bloody, haunted old Sweden of trolls and elves and ogres, and I put it in the past tense because, just as the first book in his “Millennium” trilogy, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, was about to make his fortune, he very suddenly became a dead person. In the Larsson universe the nasty trolls and hulking ogres are bent Swedish capitalists, cold-faced Baltic sex traffickers, blue-eyed Viking Aryan Nazis, and other Nordic riffraff who might have had their reasons to whack him. But if he now dwells in that Valhalla of the hack writer who posthumously beat all the odds, it’s surely because of his elf. Picture a feral waif. All right, picture a four-foot-eleven-inch “doll” with Asperger’s syndrome and generous breast implants. This is not Pippi Longstocking (to whom a few gestures are made in the narrative). This is Miss Goth, intermittently disguised as la gamine.

Forget Miss Smilla’s sense of the snow and check out Lisbeth Salander’s taste in pussy rings, tattoos, girls, boys, motorcycles, and, above all, computer keyboards. (Once you accept that George MacDonald Fraser’s Flashman can pick up any known language in a few days, you have suspended enough disbelief to settle down and enjoy his adventures.) Miss Salander is so well accoutred with special features that she’s almost over-equipped. She is awarded a photographic memory, a chess mind to rival Bobby Fischer’s, a mathematical capacity that toys with Fermat’s last theorem as a cat bats a mouse, and the ability to “hack”—I apologize for the repetition of that word—into the deep intestinal computers of all banks and police departments. At the end of The Girl Who Played with Fire, she is for good measure granted the ability to return from the grave.

With all these superheroine advantages, one wonders why she and her on-and-off sidekick, the lumbering but unstoppable reporter Mikael Blomkvist, don’t defeat the forces of Swedish Fascism and imperialism more effortlessly. But the other reason that Lisbeth Salander is such a source of fascination is this: the pint-size minxoid with the dragon tattoo is also a traumatized victim and doesn’t work or play well with others. She has been raped and tortured and otherwise abused ever since she could think, and her private phrase for her coming-of-age is “All the Evil”: words that go unelucidated until near the end of The Girl Who Played with Fire. The actress Noomi Rapace has already played Salander in a Swedish film of the first novel, which enjoyed a worldwide release. (When Hollywood gets to the casting stage, I suppose Philip Seymour Hoffman will be offered the ursine Blomkvist role, and though the coloring is wrong I keep thinking of Winona Ryder for Lisbeth.) According to Larsson’s father, the sympathy with which “the girl” is evoked is derived partly from the author’s own beloved niece, Therese, who is tattooed and has suffered from anorexia and dyslexia but can fix your computer problems.

In life, Stieg Larsson described himself as, among other things, “a feminist,” and his character surrogate, Mikael Blomkvist, takes an ostentatiously severe line against the male domination of society and indeed of his own profession. (The original grim and Swedish title of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo is Men Who Hate Women, while the trilogy’s third book bore the more fairy-tale-like name The Castle in the Air That Blew Up: the clever rebranding of the series with the word “girl” on every cover was obviously critical.) Blomkvist’s moral righteousness comes in very useful for the action of the novels, because it allows the depiction of a great deal of cruelty to women, smuggled through customs under the disguise of a strong disapproval. Sweden used to be notorious, in the late 1960s, as the homeland of the film I Am Curious (Yellow), which went all the way to the Supreme Court when distributed in the United States and gave Sweden a world reputation as a place of smiling nudity and guilt-free sex. What a world of nursery innocence that was, compared with the child slavery and exploitation that are evoked with perhaps slightly too much relish by the crusading Blomkvist.

His best excuse for his own prurience is that these serial killers and torture fanciers are practicing a form of capitalism and that their racket is protected by a pornographic alliance with a form of Fascism, its lower ranks made up of hideous bikers and meth runners. This is not just sex or crime—it’s politics! Most of the time, Larsson hauls himself along with writing such as this:

The murder investigation was like a broken mosaic in which he could make out some pieces while others were simply missing. Somewhere there was a pattern. He could sense it, but he could not figure it out. Too many pieces were missing.

No doubt they were, or there would be no book. (The plot of the first story is so heavily convoluted that it requires a page reproducing the Vanger dynasty’s family tree—the first time I can remember encountering such a dramatis personae since I read War and Peace.) But when he comes to the villain of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, a many-tentacled tycoon named Wennerström, Larsson’s prose is suddenly much more spirited. Wennerström had consecrated himself to “fraud that was so extensive it was no longer merely criminal—it was business.” That’s actually one of the best-turned lines in the whole thousand pages. If it sounds a bit like Bertolt Brecht on an average day, it’s because Larsson’s own views were old-shoe Communist.

His background involved the unique bonding that comes from tough Red families and solid class loyalties. The hard-labor and factory and mining sector of Sweden is in the far and arduous North—this is also the home territory of most of the country’s storytellers—and Grandpa was a proletarian Communist up toward the Arctic. This during the Second World War, when quite a few Swedes were volunteering to serve Hitler’s New Order and join the SS. In a note the 23-year-old Larsson wrote before setting out for Africa, he bequeathed everything to the Communist party of his hometown, Umeå. The ownership of the immense later fortune that he never saw went by law to his father and brother, leaving his partner of 30 years, Eva Gabrielsson, with no legal claim, only a moral one that asserts she alone is fit to manage Larsson’s very lucrative legacy. And this is not the only murk that hangs around his death, at the age of 50, in 2004.

To be exact, Stieg Larsson died on November 9, 2004, which I can’t help noticing was the anniversary of Kristallnacht. Is it plausible that Sweden’s most public anti-Nazi just chanced to expire from natural causes on such a date? Larsson’s magazine, Expo, which has a fairly clear fictional cousinhood with “Millennium,” was an unceasing annoyance to the extreme right. He himself was the public figure most identified with the unmasking of white-supremacist and neo-Nazi organizations, many of them with a hard-earned reputation for homicidal violence. The Swedes are not the pacific herbivores that many people imagine: in the footnotes to his second novel Larsson reminds us that Prime Minister Olof Palme was gunned down in the street in 1986 and that the foreign minister Anna Lindh was stabbed to death (in a Stockholm department store) in 2003. The first crime is still unsolved, and the verdict in the second case has by no means satisfied everybody.

A report in the mainstream newspaper Aftonbladet describes the findings of another anti-Nazi researcher, named Bosse Schön, who unraveled a plot to murder Stieg Larsson that included a Swedish SS veteran. Another scheme misfired because on the night in question, 20 years ago, he saw skinheads with bats waiting outside his office and left by the rear exit. Web sites are devoted to further speculation: one blog is preoccupied with the theory that Prime Minister Palme’s uncaught assassin was behind the death of Larsson too. Larsson’s name and other details were found when the Swedish police searched the apartment of a Fascist arrested for a political murder. Larsson’s address, telephone number, and photograph, along with threats to people identified as “enemies of the white race,” were published in a neo-Nazi magazine: the authorities took it seriously enough to prosecute the editor.

But Larsson died of an apparent coronary thrombosis, not from any mayhem. So he would have had to be poisoned, say, or somehow medically murdered. Such a hypothesis would point to some involvement “high up,” and anyone who has read the novels will know that in Larsson’s world the forces of law and order in Sweden are fetidly complicit with organized crime. So did he wind up, in effect, a character in one of his own tales? The people who might have the most interest in keeping the speculation alive—his publishers and publicists—choose not to believe it. “Sixty cigarettes a day, plus tremendous amounts of junk food and coffee and an enormous workload,” said Christopher MacLehose, Larsson’s literary discoverer in English and by a nice coincidence a publisher of Flashman, “would be the culprit. I gather he’d even had a warning heart murmur. Still, I have attended demonstrations by these Swedish right-wing thugs, and they are truly frightening. I also know someone with excellent contacts in the Swedish police and security world who assures me that everything described in the ‘Millennium’ novels actually took place. And, apparently, Larsson planned to write as many as 10 in all. So you can see how people could think that he might not have died but been ‘stopped.’”

He left behind him enough manuscript pages for three books, the last of which—due out in the U.S. next summer—is entitled The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet’s Nest, and the outlines and initial scribblings of a fourth. The market and appetite for them seems to be unappeasable, as does the demand for Henning Mankell’s “Detective Wallander” thrillers, the work of Peter (Smilla’s Sense of Snow) Høeg, and the stories of Arnaldur Indridason. These writers come from countries as diverse as Denmark and Iceland, but in Germany the genre already has a name: Schwedenkrimi, or “Swedish crime writing.” Christopher MacLehose told me that he knows of bookstores that now have special sections for the Scandinavian phenomenon. “When Roger Straus and I first published Peter Høeg,” he said, “we thought we were doing something of a favor for Danish literature, and then ‘Miss Smilla’ abruptly sold a million copies in both England and America. Look, in almost everyone there is a memory of the sagas and the Norse myths. A lot of our storytelling got started in those long, cold, dark nights.”

Perhaps. But Larsson is very much of our own time, setting himself to confront questions such as immigration, “gender,” white-collar crime, and, above all, the Internet. The plot of his first volume does involve a sort of excursion into antiquity—into the book of Leviticus, to be exact—but this is only for the purpose of encrypting a “Bible code.” And he is quite deliberately unromantic, giving us shopping lists, street directions, menus, and other details—often with their Swedish names—in full. The villains are evil, all right, but very stupid and self-thwartingly prone to spend more time (this always irritates me) telling their victims what they will do to them than actually doing it. There is much sex but absolutely no love, a great deal of violence but zero heroism. Reciprocal gestures are generally indicated by cliché: if a Larsson character wants to show assent he or she will “nod”; if he or she wants to manifest distress, then it will usually be by biting the lower lip. The passionate world of the sagas and the myths is a very long way away. Bleakness is all. That could even be the secret—the emotionless efficiency of Swedish technology, paradoxically combined with the wicked allure of the pitiless elfin avenger, plus a dash of paranoia surrounding the author’s demise. If Larsson had died as a brave martyr to a cause, it would have been strangely out of keeping; it’s actually more satisfying that he succumbed to the natural causes that are symptoms of modern life.


6 comments for “How Did Stieg Larsson Die?”

  1. we dont have to know how stieg larsson died because everyone dies when they get too close to the truth,in thus case it is a great loss of such a talent and a victim of a corrupt government as are 90per cent of all governments around the world,it most particulary sad because around the world is a coming awareness or an awakening which this man will not see.

    Posted by tony lane | August 5, 2011, 8:16 am
  2. I’m afraid this comment comes very late, but out of the loop, living in a 3rd world hellhole, hard to get books in English. Just read the second of the trilogy and wanted to mention that I found the translation absolutely excellent. So fluent, such an easy read, without the usual dumbing down I have noticed in books in translation. Bravo Mr Reg Keeland.
    BTW terrible loss of a good author.

    Posted by chrissie | February 25, 2012, 1:33 pm
  3. I enjoyed the book the girl with the Dragon Tatoo, it took me a week to finish. Lots of graphic detail but never boring for a minute. I must see the movie. It’s too bad that such a talented writer died so young and sudden.

    Posted by Avie | August 25, 2012, 9:18 am
  4. Here’s one of those blasts from the somewhat recent past:

    Report: Swedish officials profiled Roma residents
    Sept. 27, 2013 | 12:17 PM

    STOCKHOLM, Sweden, Sept. 27 (UPI) — Officials in at least two Swedish cities kept a “gypsy inventory,” profiling Roma by factors including intelligence and cleanliness, a government report says.

    The report — which is not to be released officially until January — says Stockholm officials maintained the registry as recently as 1996, TheLocal.se said. Police in Skane kept similar records, the report said.

    City officials visited Roma communities and assessed families on their intelligence, school performance, cleanliness and behavior, the white paper said.

    “Decent family,” said one assessment of a Roma family in Stockholm. Another family was described as “poor and backward.”

    Erik Ullenhag, Sweden’s integration minister, said he was “ashamed” about the findings, said they reflected a time of racial profiling in the country.

    “It is incredibly stigmatizing that people were getting home visits just because they have a certain ethnicity,” he said.

    Yikes, an ethnic-based “gypsy inventory” was being kept as late as recently as 1996? Good thing that’s no longer happening:

    The Local Sweden edition
    ‘Roma lists not race related’: Swedish police

    Published: 23 Oct 2013 17:25 CET

    Police in southern Sweden have defended their use of a Roma registry, claiming on Wednesday that it was assembled to “fight a criminal network” rather than to keep tabs on people of a specific ethnicity, which would be illegal.

    Police in southern Sweden defended their use of Roma registries, claiming on Wednesday that they were put together to “fight a criminal network” rather than to keep tabs on people of a specific ethnicity.

    Ethnicity-based registration is against the law in Sweden.

    The integration minister met with several representatives of Swedish Roma after the existence of the registries was unearthed. Last week, he commented the unfolding story at a conference on integration.

    “Sweden forced abortions on and sterilized Roma until the 1970s, some of that (thinking) lives on,” Erik Ullenhaag told the audience at the conference organized by RIA (Rådet för integration i arbetslivet).

    The existence of the first registry was revealed late last month by the Dagens Nyheter newspaper (DN) and police initially denied its existence. They later backtracked, admitted that several such lists had been created and that around 100 officers had access to them, and that around 4,700 people mainly of Roma origin had been included.

    The registries were built up in 2011 and 2012 as part of efforts to combat crime in Skåne, southern Sweden, stemming from a family dispute, the police said. On Wednesday, police maintained that there was no ethnic discrimination in the use of the list, rather that it was used as a means to keep track of a growing network.

    “This mapping register is all about fighting a criminal network. It is not about ethnicity,” police spokeswoman Monica Nebelius told the paper.

    The police and the registry are currently under investigation by the Swedish Commission on Security and Integrity Protection (Säkerhets- och integritetsskyddsnämnden – SIN), which has looked into a random selection of 1,235 of the total of 3,413 people on the list who are not children and who are still alive.

    Around half of those listed have criminal records, or are on police lists as suspects in crimes. The crimes committed, however, are often on a much smaller scale than organized crime in southern Sweden. One, according to DN, was as petty as stealing hairspray from an H&M in central Sweden, resulting in the thief, his wife, and their child appearing on a register.

    Posted by Pterrafractyl | October 23, 2013, 11:07 am
  5. Something to watch in the evolving EU and the ongoing tensions between the Roma and local authorities/communities: plain-clothes polices officers from Bulgaria are now patrolling a city in Germany to police the Bulgarian Roma:

    Deutsche Welle
    Bulgarian police patrol German streets

    For years economic refugees from Bulgaria caused problems for Dortmund’s police. Now Bulgarian police helps Dortmund to solve the problems.

    Date 30.10.2013
    Author Bilyana Mihaylova / re
    Editor Adrian Duke

    “I recognized some faces,” said Atanas Georgiev from Plovdiv’s police directorate. For two weeks he and Dimitar Dimitrov, his colleague from Sofia, have been visiting Dortmund. For 15 years the superintendent has been working on petty crime in Bulgaria, mostly in the streets of Stolipinovo, the Roma quarter of Plovdiv. In Dortmund he finds many similarities to his work in Plovdiv. “There are differences in the surroundings but the situation is nearly the same as in Plovdiv’s Roma quarters,” said Georgiev.

    For the second time Bulgarian police officers are in Dortmund. They came for the first time in May 2011, when there were huge problems with street prostitution. The city was forced to close it down. It had been mainly Bulgarian prostitutes who worked the streets. Therefore the city asked the Bulgarian police for support. This time the fight is against burglary, pickpocketing and metal theft are in the focus.

    Since Bulgaria joined the European Union in 2007 more and more people from Bulgaria come to Dortmund. They are mostly economic refugees from Plovdiv and its Roma quarter, Stolipinovo. Hence Dortmund’s police falls back on the support from the Bulgarian police. They know the language, the mentality and the structures of the Bulgarian crime milieu.

    Preparation for the free labor market

    The Bulgarians patrol the streets with their colleagues from Dortmund – in plain clothes and unarmed. They do not need weapons, their knowledge of people and criminal structures is important and could be very useful for Dortmund’s police. At least that is what Detlef Rath, superintendant of the police station Nord, hopes. Around 1700 Bulgarians are officially registered in Dortmund of which 300 to 350 are suspected to have ties to criminal groups.

    Most of the Bulgarians live in the northern part of Dortmund. And in this area are the biggest problems, says Dortmund’s police chief Norbert Wesseler. He expects that the cooperation with the Bulgarian police eases the preparation for the coming year. From January 1 on Bulgarians have free access to the labor market in EU member states. “We do not know how many more Bulgarians will come here. But we want to be prepared.”

    Are crime rates on the increase?

    The idea for the cooperation came from the Bulgarian police. The authorities did not want to face the accusation that they are impassive about the problems caused by Bulgarian economic refugees in Germany. Social workers – so called integration guides – will follow the police officers. Most of the Bulgarian immigrants do not speak German and therefore are not able to handle formalities.

    This is one of the reasons why people become victims of the organized crime, says Marita Hetmeier, former member of the city council. “On the one hand there is an official way to get to Germany – you can take the bus from Plovdiv to Dortmund or you can travel by plane. On the other hand there are many unofficial ways. That means that someone from Dortmund organises a mini van, drives there, picks up the passengers and brings them to Dortmund. Here he places them in several apartments and tells them where to go and what to do. And all that costs money. The people who come here have to pay every single step.” Often the refugees cannot find work and therefore cannot pay the service. Nevertheless the organizers of these tours come and ask for the money, according to Hetmeier.

    Posted by Pterrafractyl | October 30, 2013, 1:23 pm
  6. Lisbeth Salander’s Real Life Twin May Be Iceland’s Next Prime Minister

    Posted by Jim | March 6, 2016, 4:56 pm

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