Picking up where part one left off, this program begins with an examination of the role of SS veterans in the formation of the Green Berets. Formed initially under the auspices of the CIA, the Green Berets grew under the CIA stewardship of SS Brigadier General Franz Alfred Six, SS Colonel Emil Augsburg (like Six, a veteran of Hitler’s “Final Solution” to the “Jewish Problem”) and Michael Achmeteli, a White Russian and Nazi collaborator who worked closely with the SS and was viewed as an expert on the former Soviet Union. The Green Berets were formed against the background of the guerilla warfare that raged in Eastern Europe and the former U.S.S.R. for years after the formal conclusion of World War II. (See AFA‑1 for more details.)
The program then highlights the deliberate sabotaging of the de-Nazification of Germany after the war. Derailed by political and economic forces sympathetic to fascism, many of which had enthusiastically supported Hitler and Mussolini before the war, this failure resulted in the return to power of the same industrialists and financiers who had supported Hitler. Even more importantly, Nazis and Nazi collaborators were put right back in positions of political power in Germany, where they pursued a policy of restoring Germany’s “lost territories,” including parts of Poland, the Czech Republic and the former Soviet Union.
The program also focuses on: the Nazi antecedents of Interpol (the international police organization); the role of Herbert Hoover in helping to foil de-Nazification of German industry at the end of World War II; the Nazi sympathies of Whittaker Chambers (the principal accuser of Alger Hiss); Senator Joe McCarthy’s persecution of American P.O.W.‘s who survived a Nazi massacre at the Battle of the Bulge; Joe McCarthy’s prominent, pro-Nazi political backers; the role of Richard Nixon in blocking a congressional move to breakup of I.G. Farben (the Nazi chemical giant); Nixon’s sponsorship of prominent Romanian war criminal Nicolai Malaxa’s residence in the United States and Nixon’s invitation to Valerian (nee Viorel) Trifa, another Romanian Iron Guard butcher, to give the opening prayer before the U.S. Senate in 1955.
In the decades since the program was recorded, the Internet came into being. We present some of the original hard copy included in the original broadcast:
. . . . Wisner had already discussed . . . a plan to recruit men from amongst Eastern Europeans for hush-hush armed units to assist insurgents inside communist countries. . . . A private mercenary force was to be established in Germany to be ready for such an emergency and to be employed without involving regular US forces.
Who else than Gehlen was the man to help in laying the foundations for such “Special Forces”? He and his former FHO and WALLI men, and also the SS officers who had served in the “Brandenburg” sabotage units and the Jagdkommandos against the Red Army and Soviet partisans had all the experience that was needed. . . .
. . . . In the space of two years, about five thousand were enlisted, assembled in camps at Bad Wiessee, at Kaufbeuren in Bavaria and at the US Army Hammand Barracks near Mannheim, and trained by American officers and former German Wehrmacht and Waffen SS NCO’s. At Kaufbeuen the commandant and chief instructor was Major Ronald Otto Bollenbach, former US assistant military attache in Moscow.
These units became the nucleus of CIA’s private army, later better known as the “Green Berets” in Vietnam. . . .
. . . . Gehlen alerted several of his assistants who had a thorough knowledge and first-hand experience of Eastern European countries and their people, and also approached an acknowledged expert on anything about the East, whom he had known and admired since his school-days in Breslau. He was Dr. Michael Achmeteli, born in 1887 in Borjom in the Causasus, where his father amassed a great fortune when oil was discovered on his land by British and American mining engineers (amongst them the later President of the United States, Herbert Hoover). During the Revolution Achmeteli had fought with the White Armies against the Bolsheviks and eventually came to Germany, becoming a lecturer in Slavonic Studies at Breslau University. He was a close friend of Gehlen’s family; several of Achmeteli’s books were published by Ferdinand Hirt & Son, of which Gehlen’s father was manager. Achmeteli had been closely connected with Abwehr intelligence in its early days. The Ost-Institute he founded was, in fact, a “front” for espionage against the Soviet Union even before the Nazi regime. Under Hitler, he had become professor and head of the Institute for the study of communism and the USSR. As a friend of Hitler’s chief theoretician of the Nazi Aryan doctrine, Alfred Rosenberg, his advice was needed at OKW, and he also acted as a “super analyst” for Gehlen’s FHO. . . .
Professor Achmeteli went to work with two Pullach officers selected by Gehlen to form the first staff of the secret “Special Forces”. One was another academic, Dr. Franz Alfred Six, ex-lecturer at Koenigsberg University, who had managed to combine his scholarly vocation with the service in the SS; he had risen to the rank of SS Brigadefuhrer (equivalent to brigadier-general) and became head of Section VII at Himmler’s RSHA. He had “dived under” after the collapse of the Third Reich, but Allied intelligence officers, searching out war criminals, found him after two years. In April 1948, Six came before a US military tribunal at Nuremberg, charged with having ordered the executions of civilians, including hundreds of Jews, when in command of a Jagdkommando in July and August 1941 at Smolensk. Judge Dixon sentenced him to twenty years’ imprisonment. However, four years later Six was free and busy advancing the fruition of the CIA-Gehlen project.
The third member of the triumvirate was Dr. Emil Augsburg, born in 1904 in Lodz in Poland, according to official Polish sources, of Jewish parentage—which, if true, did not hamper his ultimate admission to the SS in which he rose to become Standartenfuhrer (colonel) heading a section attached to Adolf Eichmann’s S‑4 department which handled the “Jewish problem”, with “final results” that are well known. After the collapse, Augsburg fled, as did Eichmann, with the assistance of ODESSA to Italy, where he found charitable aid from circles close to the Vatican which helped escaped Nazis. . . .
. . . . These three experts prepared the briefs for the would-be agents to be sent into Russia. . . .
. . . . Gehlen suggested that Wisner hire Dr. Franz Six to head the recruitment and training of the special forces. Six knew most of the leading Byelorussians, he explained having recruited them for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Russia. Six however, was at that moment on trial for his crimes at Nuremberg. . . . In 1950, [General Lucius] Clay’s successor, High Commissioner John J McCloy, commuted the sentence to time served, and Six went to work for Gehlen on the special forces project. . . .
. . . . Many of the recruits from the Byelorussian SS were put on the government payroll as members of “Polish” labor service battalions. . . . The Byelorussian units kept the same command structure used under the Nazis and simply changed uniforms as they went on the American payroll. . . .