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FTR #549 The Pan-Turkist Movement, the Underground Reich and the Earth Island

MP3 Side 1 | Side 2

Intro­duc­tion: Fur­ther ana­lyz­ing the fas­cist covert action struc­ture to which the Dalai Lama and his milieu belong, the broad­cast explores the Pan-Turk­ist move­ment. Born after the First World War, this move­ment sought to restore the lost “glo­ry” of the Ottoman Empire by unit­ing the large num­ber of Turks out­side of Turkey prop­er into a “Greater Turkestan.” Many of these “Out­side Turks” were in the for­mer Sovi­et Union. For this rea­son, the Pan-Turk­ists have his­tor­i­cal­ly allied with anti-com­mu­nist net­works, includ­ing those main­tained by Nazi Ger­many and the insti­tu­tions that absorbed the resid­ua of the Third Reich’s intel­li­gence sys­tem. The Pan-Turk­ists are a major ele­ment of the sep­a­ratist move­ment in Xin­jiang province—a move­ment active­ly sup­port­ed by the Dalai Lama. Much of the broad­cast con­sists of excerpts from AFA#’s 14 and 21, record­ed in 1986. These pro­grams high­light promi­nent fea­tures of the Pan-Turk­ist move­ment, includ­ing its asso­ci­a­tion with Nazi Ger­many, ele­ments of West­ern intel­li­gence and its involve­ment in the events sur­round­ing the shoot­ing of Pope John Paul II.

Pro­gram High­lights Include: Review of the oper­a­tional links between Islamist sep­a­ratist ele­ments in Xin­jiang, Pan-Turk­ist sep­a­ratist ele­ments in that province, and the milieu of the Dalai Lama; dis­cus­sion of the Bush administration’s clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the Xin­jiang sep­a­ratist move­ment as terrorist—one of the few things it has done right in the “war on ter­ror”; analy­sis of the UNPO, an appar­ent covert action front mas­querad­ing as a human rights orga­ni­za­tion; the Pan-Turk­ist movement’s asso­ci­a­tion with Nazi intel­li­gence; Pan-Turk­ist Ruzy Nazar’s ser­vice as a Waf­fen SS offi­cer in World II; Nazar’s rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the Anti-Bol­she­vik Bloc of Nations at a 1984 WACL con­fer­ence in Dal­las; Nazar’s asso­ci­a­tion with the CIA; Nazar’s ser­vice with Radio Free Europe (which also employed Pan-Turk­ist Erkin Alptekin of the UNPO and the Dalai Lama Foun­da­tion); the role of the Pan-Turk­ist (and fas­cist) Grey Wolves in the shoot­ing of Pope John Paul II.

1. The pro­gram begins with review of a rel­e­vant quote from Christo­pher Hitchens. Address­ing a cog­ni­tive con­sid­er­a­tion cen­tral to grasp­ing the enor­mous gap between the pub­lic per­cep­tion of the Dalai Lama and the unsa­vory real­i­ty of his polit­i­cal con­nec­tions and reli­gious prac­tices, the broad­cast opens with a telling, rel­e­vant quote from Christo­pher Hitchens. Indeed, the Dalai Lama has his words and actions judged by his rep­u­ta­tion, not the oth­er way around.

“ . . . The great­est tri­umph that mod­ern PR can offer is the tran­scen­dent suc­cess of hav­ing your words and actions judged by your rep­u­ta­tion, rather than the oth­er way about. The ‘spir­i­tu­al leader’ of Tibet has enjoyed this unas­sail­able sta­tus for some time now, becom­ing a byword and syn­onym for saint­ly and ethe­re­al val­ues. Why this does­n’t put peo­ple on their guard I’ll nev­er know. . . .”

(“His Mate­r­i­al High­ness” by Christo­pher Hitchens; Salon.com; 7/13/1998.)

2. The pro­gram reviews the links of the Dalai Lama and his milieu to var­i­ous intel­li­gence agen­cies and some of the groups that they spon­sor. Review­ing infor­ma­tion pre­sent­ed in FTR #547, we note that the Dalai Lama him­self is no stranger to ele­ments of U.S. intel­li­gence, specif­i­cal­ly the CIA.

“ . . . How­ev­er, through­out the 1960’s, the Tibetan exile com­mu­ni­ty was secret­ly pock­et­ing $1.7 mil­lion from the CIA, accord­ing to doc­u­ments released by the State Depart­ment in 1998. Once this fact was pub­li­cized, the Dalai Lama’s orga­ni­za­tion itself issued a state­ment admit­ting that it had received mil­lions of dol­lars from the CIA dur­ing the 1960’s to send armed squads of exiles into Tibet to under­mine the Maoist rev­o­lu­tion. The Dalai Llama’s annu­al pay­ment from the CIA was $186,000. Indi­an intel­li­gence also financed both him and oth­er Tibetan exiles. He has refused to say whether he or his broth­ers worked for the CIA. The agency has also declined to com­ment. . . .”

(“Friend­ly Feu­dal­ism: The Tibet Myth” by Michael Par­en­ti; 7/04.)

3. Gain­ing a broad­er view of the polit­i­cal milieu to which the Dalai Lama belongs, the broad­cast reviews the fact that the Dalai Lama has col­lab­o­rat­ed with Islamists from among the Uighur pop­u­la­tion of Xin­jiang province of Chi­na. The Uighurs–a large­ly Mus­lim pop­u­la­tion who speak a Tur­kic language—have been agi­tat­ing for inde­pen­dence from Chi­na. (The Uighurs refer to Xin­jiang as East or East­ern “Turkestan.”) With Xin­jiang province being rich in petro­le­um, the Uighurs have had lit­tle trou­ble obtain­ing sup­port from for­eign intel­li­gence ser­vices. For addi­tion­al infor­ma­tion about Uighur involve­ment with the Mus­lim Brotherhood/Al Qae­da milieu, see FTR#348 as well as FTR#550. It should be not­ed that we are a long way from deal­ing with “Bud­dhists” here!! The Dalai Lama’s milieu is part of a larg­er Under­ground Reich vir­tu­al state. It is also impor­tant to bear in mind that the milieu to which the Dalai Lama belongs appears to focus on Cen­tral Asia—that part of the “Earth Island” seen by geopoliti­cians as key to con­trol­ling that land mass and, as a con­se­quence, the world. Note that the Uighurs are count­ed by the Pan-Turk­ists as among the “out­side Turks” to be includ­ed in a “Greater Turkestan”.

“India should have rea­sons to be con­cerned over the Dalai Lama’s hob­nob­bing with the pan- Islam­ic ele­ments in Xin­jiang. One can­not avoid sus­pect­ing that the influ­ence of these ele­ments must have been behind his par­tic­i­pa­tion in a con­fer­ence orga­nized in Chen­nai last year by some ele­ments, which have been act­ing as apol­o­gists for Gen. Per­vez Mushar­raf, the Pak­istani mil­i­tary dic­ta­tor, which was attend­ed by a rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the Huryi­at of J&K and a large num­ber of Pak­ista­nis, some of them retired Pak­istani mil­i­tary offi­cers. The Dalai Lama’s set-up sub­se­quent­ly denied or played down some of the con­tro­ver­sial remarks attrib­uted to him at the con­fer­ence. The Gov­ern­ment of India should con­sid­er con­vey­ing to the Dalai Lama its unhap­pi­ness and con­cern over his asso­ci­a­tion with pan-Islam­ic ele­ments in Xin­jiang.”

(“US & Ter­ror­ism in Xin­jiang” by B. Raman; From the web­site of the South Asia Analy­sis Group [an Indi­an intelligence/national secu­ri­ty think tank]; 7/02)

4. More on the Uighur involve­ment with Al Qae­da:

“10. The Islam­ic Move­ment of Uzbek­istan and the Abu Sayyaf of the south­ern Philip­pines have been des­ig­nat­ed as For­eign Ter­ror­ist Orga­ni­za­tions under the US law of 1996, but not the East­ern Turkestan Islam­ic Par­ty, though all the three are mem­bers of Osama bin Laden’s Inter­na­tion­al Islam­ic Front For Jehad Against the USA and Israel. In ini­ti­at­ing action, either for des­ig­na­tion as a For­eign Ter­ror­ist Orga­ni­za­tion or for action under the UN Secu­ri­ty Coun­cil Res­o­lu­tion No, 1373 in respect of bank accounts, the US and the Euro­pean Union have focused essen­tial­ly on ter­ror­ist orga­ni­za­tions, which are per­ceived by them as inter­na­tion­al in nature or which are seen as pos­ing a threat to their nation­als and inter­ests. Ter­ror­ist orga­ni­za­tions viewed by them as pure­ly indige­nous have been exclud­ed. These mul­ti­ple yard­sticks have been used vis- a‑vis Chi­na as well as India.”


5. Note that both the Islamist ele­ment of the Uighur inde­pen­dence move­ment and its more sec­u­lar Pan-Turk­ist allies have col­lab­o­rat­ed with the Dalai Lama.

“7. Uighurs were found fight­ing with al-Qae­da in Afghanistan. We are aware of cred­i­ble reports that some Uighurs who were trained by al-Qae­da have returned to Chi­na. . . .24. The sec­ond sim­i­lar­i­ty relates to the exter­nal caus­es of aggra­va­tion of the ter­ror­ist vio­lence in Xin­jiang. Just as in J & K, in Xin­jiang too, there are two dis­tinct terrorist/extremist move­ments- ‑one resort­ing to vio­lence on eth­nic grounds to assert the Uighur eth­nic iden­ti­ty against the per­ceived Han Chi­nese dom­i­na­tion and the oth­er using reli­gious and pan-Islam­ic argu­ments to jus­ti­fy vio­lence for the estab­lish­ment of an inde­pen­dent Islam­ic State. While the eth­nic sep­a­ratist ele­ments have been the ben­e­fi­cia­ries of sym­pa­thy and sup­port from the Dalai Lama’s set-up and the Tibetan dias­po­ra abroad, and the US, Tai­wanese and Turk­ish intel­li­gence agen­cies, the reli­gious fun­da­men­tal­ist ele­ments have been in receipt of sup­port from the Inter-Ser­vices Intel­li­gence (ISI)-backed jeha­di orga­ni­za­tions in Pak­istan, the Tal­iban and bin Laden’s Inter­na­tion­al Islam­ic Front For Jehad Against the USA and Israel.”


6. Accord­ing to the Raman paper, the CIA had close con­nec­tions to Erkin Alptekin, a mem­ber of the board of the Dalai Lama foun­da­tion and a func­tionary of the move­ment to estab­lish Xin­jiang province of Chi­na as an inde­pen­dent (Mus­lim) Uighur state—East Turkestan. It should be not­ed that Alptekin is an oper­a­tive of the Pan-Turk­ist move­ment, which is dis­tinct from the Islamist ele­ment in the Uighur inde­pen­dence move­ment. The Pan-Turk­ist move­ment is dis­cussed at length in AFA#’s 14 and 21.

“25. In the 1970s and the 1980s, the Cen­tral Intel­li­gence Agency (CIA) of the USA had built up a net­work of con­tacts with the Uighur sep­a­ratist ele­ments and some of those, who had in the past worked for the Munich-based Radio Lib­er­ty of the CIA such as Erkin Alptekin, chair­man of the Europe-based East­ern Turkestani Union and a close Uighur asso­ciate of the Dalai Lama, are now in the fore­front of the eth­nic sep­a­ratist move­ment. . . .”


7. In addi­tion to his back­ground with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty—both close­ly con­nect­ed to U.S. intelligence—Erkin Alptekin is a founder and key mem­ber of the UNPO, about which we will have more to say in weeks to come. Alptekin is also on the board of the Dalai Lama Foun­da­tion.

“ERKIN ALPTEKIN is one of the fore­most human rights advo­cates for the Uighur peo­ple of East­ern Turkestan, also known as the Xin­jiang Autonomous Region of the People’s Repub­lic of Chi­na. Mr. Alptekin was employed by Radio Free Europe/Radio Lib­er­ty from 1971 to 1994. He is one of the founders of the Unrep­re­sent­ed Nations and People’s Orga­ni­za­tion (UNPO), and cur­rent­ly serves as its gen­er­al sec­re­tary.”

(Excerpt from the list of the board of the Dalai Lama Foun­da­tion.)

8. Anoth­er board mem­ber of the Dalai Lama Foun­da­tion is a mem­ber of the UNPO. Again, the UNPO will be dis­cussed at greater length in FTR#550.

“MICHAEL VAN WALT cur­rent­ly serves as Exec­u­tive Pres­i­dent of the Peace Action Coun­cil, and Legal Advi­sor to the Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. From 1991 to 1998 Dr. Van Walt was Gen­er­al Sec­re­tary of UNPO, the Unrep­re­sent­ed Nations and Peo­ples Orga­ni­za­tion. Dr. Van Walt holds law degrees from Europe and Amer­i­ca, and is cur­rent­ly Adjunct Pro­fes­sor of Inter­na­tion­al Law, Gold­en Gate Uni­ver­si­ty School of Law, San Fran­cis­co.”


9. Next, the pro­gram presents an unin­formed (and unin­ten­tion­al­ly inform­ing) arti­cle by Wayne Mad­sen, a for­mer intel­li­gence agent him­self. Mad­sen notes that the Bush admin­is­tra­tion clas­si­fied the Uighur inde­pen­dence move­ment as ter­ror­ist. As can be seen above, this is an accu­rate des­ig­na­tion. This clas­si­fi­ca­tion, like the Bush administration’s clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the Bank Al Taqwa as ter­ror­ist, is one of the rel­a­tive­ly few things the Bush admin­is­tra­tion has done right in the war on ter­ror. In the case of the Uighur inde­pen­dence move­ment, the impe­tus to clas­si­fy the move­ment as ter­ror­ist may well have come from State Depart­ment intel­li­gence ele­ments. In this con­text, one should note that the nation­al secu­ri­ty estab­lish­ment is not mono­lith­ic. It appears that in the case of the Uighur inde­pen­dence move­ment and Al Taqwa, some ele­ments of U.S. intel­li­gence were func­tion­ing with effec­tive­ness and accu­ra­cy. As we saw in FTRs 513 and 514, Bank Al Taqwa was even­tu­al­ly let off the hook when the Unit­ed States refused to pro­vide infor­ma­tion to the Swiss, who then dropped much of their inves­ti­ga­tion of Bank Al Taqwa.

“Super­man com­ic book fans will fond­ly recall the top­sy-turvy Bizarro world, a plan­et shaped like a cube where every­thing hap­pened back­wards and noth­ing made any sense. Wel­come now to the Bush world, where the revered Dalai Lama of Tibet may now be brand­ed by the Unit­ed States as a ‘fel­low trav­el­er’ of ter­ror­ists or, worse yet, an ‘ene­my com­bat­ant.’ On August 27, Deputy Sec­re­tary of State Richard Armitage, a shad­owy ex-Spe­cial Forces offi­cer who has been linked to every­thing from hero­in smug­gling in Bur­ma’s Gold­en Tri­an­gle to smug­gling weapons to the Iran­ian regime of Aya­tol­lah Khome­i­ni, met with senior Chi­nese offi­cials in Bei­jing. Accord­ing to Reuters, Armitage, rep­re­sent­ing the world’s sec­ond largest total­i­tar­i­an regime, told the lead­er­ship of the world’s largest one that the State Depart­ment had added a new group to its list of for­eign ter­ror­ist orga­ni­za­tions: the move­ment seek­ing inde­pen­dence for west­ern Chi­na’s Sinkiang region, an area that Chi­nese Uighur (pro­nounced ‘wee-ger’) Mus­lims regard as East Turkestan or Uighurstan. The only prob­lem with this des­ig­na­tion, obvi­ous­ly designed to please the Chi­nese regime pri­or to the upcom­ing Octo­ber sum­mit in Wash­ing­ton between Chi­nese Vice Pres­i­dent Hu Jin­tao and Pres­i­dent Bush, is that the new ‘ter­ror­ist group’ is a mem­ber of the same non-gov­ern­ment orga­ni­za­tion as the Dalai Lama’s Tibetan gov­ern­ment-in-exile, the Unrep­re­sent­ed Nations and Peo­ples Orga­ni­za­tion (UNPO), offi­cial­ly rec­og­nized by the Unit­ed Nations as an inter­na­tion­al human rights orga­ni­za­tion. . . .”

(“Bush’s Bizarro World” by Wayne Mad­sen; Coun­ter­punch; 8/29/2002.)

10. Madsen’s strik­ing naivete (if that’s what it is) con­cern­ing Alptekin, the Dalai Lama and the UNPO exem­pli­fies the dynam­ic not­ed by Christo­pher Hitchens in para­graph #1.

“ . . . In fact, Erkin Alptekin, East Turkestan’s exiled leader serves as Sec­re­tary Gen­er­al of UNPO, and thus, rep­re­sents the Dalai Lama and oth­er eth­nic and trib­al lead­ers of 52 mem­bers of the orga­ni­za­tion. The Direc­tor Gen­er­al of UNPO, hard­ly a ter­ror­ist, is Karl von Hab­s­burg of the for­mer Aus­tro-Hun­gar­i­an roy­al fam­i­ly. Last Sep­tem­ber 12, Alptekin, Amer­i­ca’s newest ‘ter­ror­ist,’ stat­ed in a let­ter to Pres­i­dent Bush, ‘UNPO is great­ly shocked and sad­dened by the immense destruc­tion, injury, and loss of life which have occurred in New York, Wash­ing­ton DC and else­where in the Unit­ed States, as a result of dead­ly acts of ter­ror­ism.’ But now Alptek­in’s move­ment has been tossed into the same cat­e­go­ry as Al Qae­da and Hamas and its Tibetan and Chechen allies now risk sim­i­lar treat­ment at the hands of a U.S. admin­is­tra­tion that could be legit­i­mate­ly ruled by any psy­chi­a­trist as clin­i­cal­ly insane.”


11. Note that Mad­sen him­self (for what­ev­er rea­son) gave mon­ey to the UNPO!! Anoth­er impor­tant point to note here is the fact that the Lako­ta are among the “unrep­re­sent­ed” peo­ples cham­pi­oned by the UNPO. In FTR#550, we will exam­ine the pos­si­bil­i­ty that the Lako­ta may be tar­get­ed for some type of covert oper­a­tion, per­haps even the desta­bi­liza­tion and/or geo­graph­i­cal dis­so­lu­tion of the Unit­ed States itself!!

“East Turkestan is rep­re­sent­ed inter­na­tion­al­ly by a num­ber of orga­ni­za­tions, now being linked by Armitage to ter­ror­ism. They include the East­ern Turkestan Nation­al Con­gress, based in Munich, Ger­many, and affil­i­at­ed groups in Istan­bul, Turkey; Bishkek, Kyr­gyzs­tan; Almaty, Kaza­khstan; and New York. With Armitage’s announce­ment, all these Uighur groups face sanc­tions and depor­ta­tion. Under the terms of the USA Patri­ot Act and oth­er U.S. crim­i­nal statutes, the State Depart­men­t’s arbi­trary des­ig­na­tion of a group as a ‘for­eign ter­ror­ist orga­ni­za­tion’ has severe ram­i­fi­ca­tions. Peo­ple who con­tribute to such orga­ni­za­tions and finan­cial insti­tu­tions who han­dle trans­ac­tions for such orga­ni­za­tions can face crim­i­nal pros­e­cu­tion. Any­one who con­tributes mon­ey, lodg­ing, expert assis­tance, trans­porta­tion or oth­er ‘mate­r­i­al sup­port’ to such orga­ni­za­tions can face long prison terms and seizure of their assets. Res­i­dent aliens in the Unit­ed States can be deport­ed, or worse, be declared ene­my com­bat­ants and wind up on a one-way flight to Guan­tanamo Bay, Cuba. In fact, this writer once con­tributed mon­ey to UNPO. [Empha­sis added.] . . . . Even native Amer­i­cans are no longer safe from renewed Fed­er­al sub­ju­ga­tion. One of the mem­bers of UNPO is the Sioux Lako­ta Nation, the scene of past bloody bat­tles between encroach­ing Fed­er­al troops and FBI agent and the Sioux. [Empha­sis added.] . . .”


12. Alptekin is part of the Pan-Turk­ist move­ment. The fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I saw the birth of a revan­chist move­ment that sought to unite Turks and “Tur­kic-speak­ing” peo­ple liv­ing out­side of Turkey prop­er into a “Greater Turkestan.” [Mr. Emory mis­pro­nounced the Uighur term for Xin­jiang as “East Turk­menistan.” Turk­menistan is the coun­try that evolved from a for­mer Sovi­et repub­lic. “Turkestan” is the myth­i­cal state envi­sioned by the Pan-Turk­ists. Many of the so-called “Out­side Turks” lived in the for­mer Sovi­et Union. For this rea­son, anti-com­mu­nist net­works such as the pre-World War II Promethean League enlist­ed the coop­er­a­tion of these “Out­side Turks” in order to defeat and dis­solve the for­mer Sovi­et Union. In this regard, anti-com­mu­nist confederations—including those work­ing for Nazi Ger­many and Cold War net­works that absorbed the resid­ua of the Third Reich intel­li­gence apparatus—looked to the “bas­machi” upris­ing of “Out­side Turks” as inspi­ra­tion. (One should note that these Turks were Mus­lims. This is not to say that the Pan-Turk­ist move­ment is Islamist. Both Islamist and [rel­a­tive­ly] sec­u­lar sep­a­ratist ele­ments are present in the milieu work­ing for the seces­sion of Xin­jiang province of Chi­na. Again, it is this milieu of which the Dalai Lama is part. This same milieu is a major ele­ment of the UNPO, dis­cussed at greater length in FTR #550, as is the “bas­machi” upris­ing.)

13. Next, the pro­gram excerpts AFA#14, record­ed in Jan­u­ary of 1986. AFA#14 is the first of two broad­casts about the for­mer World Anti-Com­mu­nist League or WACL. One of WACL’s cen­tral ele­ments, the Anti-Bol­she­vik Bloc of Nations (ABN) was essen­tial­ly a re-nam­ing of the Com­mit­tee of Sub­ju­gat­ed Nations, formed by Hitler in 1943. Com­prised of fas­cist orga­ni­za­tions allied with Hitler, such as the Orga­ni­za­tion of Ukrain­ian Nationalists/Bandera or OUN/B and Hun­gar­i­an Arrow Cross, the ABN advo­cat­ed an anti-com­mu­nist approach that not only favored the rolling back of Sovi­et influ­ence from East­ern Europe, but the dis­so­lu­tion of the Sovi­et Union into its con­stituent republics. A polit­i­cal goal of the Third Reich, the even­tu­al res­o­lu­tion of events in the man­ner favored by ABN was­n’t acci­den­tal. (AFAs 36 and 37 doc­u­ment the role of ABN ele­ments in the desta­bi­liza­tion of the for­mer Sovi­et Union.) One of the ele­ments rep­re­sent­ed in the ABN is the Pan-Turk­ist move­ment. Allied with Nazi Ger­many in World War II and fas­cist in nature, the Pan-Turk­ists had long sought to carve up the Sovi­et Union and restore the glo­ry of the Ottoman Empire. The main con­tem­po­rary vehi­cle of pan-Turk­ism is the Nation­al Action Par­ty and its youth wing, the Grey Wolves. Found­ed by Alparslan Turkes (who advo­cat­ed a war-time alliance between Turkey and Nazi Ger­many), its best-known mem­ber is Mehmet Ali Agca, con­vict­ed of shoot­ing the Pope. An asso­ciate of the Nation­al Action Par­ty, Ruzy Nazar, rep­re­sent­ed the ABN at a WACL con­fer­ence in Dal­las in 1984.

14. In an excerpt from AFA 21 from 5/29/86, Nazar’s ser­vice as an offi­cer in a Waf­fen SS unit dur­ing World War II. Nazar is alleged (by the late Turk­ish jour­nal­ist Ugur Mum­cu) to have worked for the CIA. Nazar was very close to for­mer CIA sta­tion chief [in Istan­bul] Paul Hen­ze, with whom he worked at Radio Free Europe. NOTE THAT NAZAR’S BACKGROUND IS SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE DALAI LAMA’S CLOSE ASSOCIATE ERKIN ALPTEKIN, WHO ALSO WORKED FOR RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY! AFA#’s 17–21 deal with the events in and around the shoot­ing of Pope John Paul II. Pan-Turk­ist ele­ments fig­ured promi­nent­ly in that event. Lis­ten­ers who would like to know more about this event should order AFAs 17–21 from Spit­fire. Ref­er­ences to “Stibam” and “Bekir Celenk” can be explored at length in AFA#20. Bekir Celenk—a Turk—was the alleged pay­mas­ter for the shoot­ing of the Pope. He was part of the Stibam arms-for-drugs ring, which also involved many Turks.


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