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FTR #788 Greek Tragedy, Part 2: “Clausewitzian Economics–The Continuation of War by Other Means”

Dave Emory’s entire life­time of work is avail­able on a flash dri­ve that can be obtained here. [1] (The flash dri­ve includes the anti-fas­cist books avail­able on this site.)

Lis­ten: MP3

Side 1 [2]  Side 2 [3]

This descrip­tion con­tains infor­ma­tion not con­tained in the orig­i­nal broad­cast.


Greeks protest­ing aus­ter­i­ty

Intro­duc­tion: Fur­ther devel­op­ing mate­r­i­al pre­sent­ed in FTR #746 [5], this pro­gram details the hor­ri­fy­ing devel­op­ments unfold­ing in Greece. Being hailed as a “suc­cess,” due to its recent re-entry into the bond mar­ket, Greece is actu­al­ly a cru­el and depress­ing exam­ple of the long-stand­ing strat­e­gy of German/Underground Reich geopol­i­tics.

Real­iz­ing a strat­e­gy for Ger­man polit­i­cal dom­i­na­tion of Europe and the world, the EU and EMU are direct man­i­fes­ta­tions of the strat­e­gy first advo­cat­ed by Friedrich List in the 19th cen­tu­ry.

List advo­cat­ed a pan-Euro­pean eco­nom­ic union–dominated by Germany–as a means to con­trol first Europe and then the world. Imple­ment­ing the List strate­gic doc­trine through a series of mil­i­tary adven­tures and sub­se­quent eco­nom­ic and polit­i­cal con­sol­i­da­tion, Ger­many has uti­lized the con­cepts for­mu­lat­ed by Pruss­ian mil­i­tary the­o­rist Carl von Clause­witz in order to do so.

Hav­ing orig­i­nat­ed the con­cept of “Total War,” [6] von Clause­witz posit­ed the fun­da­men­tal impor­tance of a “post-war” to suc­cess­ful real­iza­tion of strat­e­gy.


Aus­ter­i­ty advo­cates inspect­ing Greek assets

In All Hon­or­able MenJames Stew­art Mar­tin high­lighted an impor­tant aspect of von Clausewitz’s phi­los­o­phy, that war and diplo­macy are two sides of the same coin. When diplo­macy is no longer effec­tive, the pol­icy goal is pur­sued through the use of armed force. When war and mil­i­tary pow­er have reached the lim­its of their effec­tive­ness, diplo­macy con­tin­ues the pur­suit [8] of the goal.

Gen­er­a­tions of Ger­mans have under­stood this and incor­po­rated that con­cept [9] into the method­ol­ogy of Ger­man pow­er struc­ture.

All Hon­or­able Men by James Stew­art Mar­tin; Lit­tle, Brown [HC]; Copy­right 1950 by James Stew­art Mar­tin; p. 235. [10]

. . . . The end of bat­tle in 1945 had sig­naled the start of a new kind of war–a  post-war. Germany’s clas­si­cal  mil­i­tary the­o­rist, von Clause­witz, is famous for hav­ing declared that “war is the con­tin­u­a­tion of diplo­macy by oth­er means.”  In deal­ing with a Ger­many which had gone to school with von Clause­witz for gen­er­a­tions, we knew that, con­versely, a post-war is the con­tin­u­a­tion of war by oth­er means.  Since Bis­marck, wars and post-wars have formed a con­tin­u­ous series, chang­ing the qual­ity of the events only slight­ly from year to year, with no  such thing as a clear dis­tinc­tion between  heat of  bat­tle and calm of  peace.  This  post-war of  the Ger­man occu­pa­tion was  dif­fer­ent from the  “cold war”  between the Unit­ed States and Rus­sia, which broke out at about  the same time. The lat­ter com­pli­cated  the  diag­no­sis, like a man get­ting typhoid fever and pneu­mo­nia at the same time. . . .

[11]Hav­ing inflict­ed enor­mous dam­age on the infra­struc­ture and pop­u­la­tions of Europe and hav­ing appro­pri­at­ed the liq­uid cap­i­tal of those coun­tries and secret­ed it into the Bor­mann flight cap­i­tal net­work [12], Ger­man cor­po­rate struc­ture cement­ed their con­trol over the remain­ing wealth of the con­ti­nent through licens­ing agree­ments and cor­po­rate alliances.

Not con­cep­tu­al­ized as an eco­nom­ic the­o­rist, von Clause­witz’s doc­trines of “total war” and “post-war” apply direct­ly to the political/economic dom­i­na­tion of Europe by Ger­many.

Greece is but one exam­ple of that pol­i­cy, albeit one of the most salient and shock­ing. We present what has been done to Greece as rep­re­sen­ta­tive of “Clause­witz­ian eco­nom­ics.”

Pro­gram High­lights Include:

1. We begin by not­ing that the pro­vi­sional Greek “aus­ter­ity” gov­ern­ment includes the Greek neo-Nazi LAOS par­ty, installed with no input what­so­ever from the pop­u­la­tion of “the cra­dle of democ­ra­cy.”

“Europe Adrift (1)”; german-foreign-policy.com; 12/21/2011. [13]

. . . Recent­ly, a rightwing extrem­ist par­ty was again made a direct coali­tion part­ner in a country’s gov­ern­ment — in Greece. The new­ly installed tran­si­tional gov­ern­ment — imposed under the super­vi­sion of Berlin and Brus­sels — includes not only the con­ser­v­a­tive and social demo­c­ra­tic par­ties but also the LAOS Par­ty (Laikós Orthó­doxos Synager­més, “Ortho­dox People’s Alarm”). The LAOS Par­ty musters also par­ti­sans of the for­mer mil­i­tary dic­ta­tor­ship and is known for its racist and anti-Semit­ic invec­tives. Gior­gos Karatzaferis [33], LAOS Par­ty Chair­per­son, is quot­ed to have pro­claimed that he is proud “not to be Jew­ish, homo­sex­ual and com­mu­nist,” which “only few can claim.“[5] He is said to have called out to the Israeli ambas­sador: “Jew ambas­sador, watch out where you tread! Let’s dis­cuss the Holo­caust, let’s talk about all the fairy tales about Auschwitz and Dachau.“[6] Makis Voridis [34], a mem­ber of the LAOS Par­ty and min­is­ter of trans­porta­tion in the Greek gov­ern­ment, imposed by Berlin and Brus­sels, began his polit­i­cal career as the leader of a youth orga­ni­za­tion of the par­ty presided over by Geor­gios Papadopou­los. Papadopou­los had been the mil­i­tary com­man­der of the jun­ta. He found­ed that par­ty after he had been released from prison, in the after­math of the over­throw of his dic­ta­tor­ship. The Ger­man gov­ern­ment evi­dently con­sid­ers the LAOS Par­ty help­ful for imple­ment­ing its aus­ter­ity dic­tate. . . .

2a. The first of sev­er­al arti­cles notes that the issue of Ger­man war repa­ra­tions owed to Greece has come back into focus in con­nec­tion with the aus­ter­i­ty pack­age imposed by the Troi­ka.

Note that, accord­ing to Albrecht Ritschl, Ger­many is the great­est debt trans­gres­sor in the world, as a result of World War Two debts.

“Pro­tec­torate-Like”; german-foreign-policy.com; 2/13/2012. [15]

Last night, under strong pop­u­lar protests, the Greek par­lia­ment accept­ed the lat­est “aus­ter­ity pack­age,” that the Ger­man gov­ern­ment had pro­moted in the form of an ulti­ma­tum. This “aus­ter­ity pack­age” will lead to a 20 per­cent cut in pri­vate rev­enue and the min­i­mum wage, there­fore also in the pub­lic sec­tor wages, which are depen­dent on the min­i­mum wage. One hun­dred fifty thou­sand gov­ern­ment employ­ees will be laid off. Crit­i­cism of Berlin has become sharp­er because of its efforts to trans­form Athens into a de fac­to EU finance pro­tec­torate, using so-called aus­ter­ity com­mis­sion­ers. Demon­stra­tors burned Ger­man flags; Greek par­lia­men­tar­i­ans have announced an ini­tia­tive to remind that Ger­man World War II repa­ra­tions are still out­stand­ing. Since 1945, the Fed­eral Repub­lic of Ger­many has con­sis­tently refused not only to pay repa­ra­tions, but also Nazi debts, even those undis­puted by the Ger­man Reichs­bank at the end of the war. These would amount to more than three bil­lion Euros today. But, the debate con­tin­ues in the Ger­man cap­i­tal about the sus­pen­sion of democ­racy in Greece.

Protests against Berlin

Berlin’s bru­tal aus­ter­ity dic­tate and the Ger­man media’s on-going rab­ble-rous­ing anti-Greek (“bank­rupt Greeks”) pro­pa­ganda has enflamed Greek protests against Ger­many for quite some time. Last sum­mer, Greek demon­stra­tors chant­ed “Ger­many out of the EU!”, and dis­played “Merkel = Nazi” ban­ners at ral­lies. EU flags with a swasti­ka in the cen­ter were occa­sion­ally seen. The mem­ory that this is not the first time that Berlin has dic­tated Athens’s poli­cies, has recent­ly been accom­pa­nied by ref­er­ences to Nazi rule in occu­pied Europe. Last week demon­stra­tors out­side of the Greek par­lia­men­tary build­ing again chant­ed “Nazis Out!” while burn­ing a Ger­man flag. Trade union­ists also occu­pied the Athen­ian offices used by the Ger­man Horst Reichen­bach and his “task force Greece,” mon­i­tor­ing Athens’s aus­ter­ity mea­sures, in the name of the EU Com­mis­sion. These protests against Berlin’s hege­monic dic­tate are defamed in the Ger­man media sim­ply as “anti-Ger­man pro­pa­gan­da.”

Old Debts

A few days ago, a group of twen­ty-eight Greek par­lia­men­tar­i­ans, from var­i­ous par­ties, react­ed to Berlin’s per­sis­tent pres­sure by tabling a res­o­lu­tion, call­ing on the par­lia­ment to debate Nazi Germany’s plun­der of Greece, which has nev­er received indem­ni­ties. The indem­ni­ties not only refer to repa­ra­tions in gen­eral, but also to the com­pul­sory loans to the Reichsbank’s clear­ing account. Short­ly before the end of World War II, Nazi bankers were still in pos­ses­sion of Greek assets worth 476 mil­lion Reichs­mark, which has nev­er been repaid by the Fed­eral Repub­lic of Ger­many. Accord­ing to experts, this would today amount to 3.4 bil­lion Euros with inter­ests includ­ed. Greece is not the only coun­try that has waived Germany’s old Nazi debts with­out receiv­ing any­thing in return. As the econ­o­mist Albrecht Ritschl, who teach­es at the Lon­don School of Eco­nom­ics, con­firmed, Nazi Germany’s unpaid debts to its wartime adver­saries would today range between 700 bil­lion and 1.4 tril­lion Euros with inter­ests includ­ed, depend­ing on the method of calculation.[1] This does not even include the repa­ra­tions for war dam­ages.

Debt Can­ce­la­tion

Because of the Fed­eral Repub­lic of Germany’s long­stand­ing pol­icy of refusal, even total­ly indis­putable Nazi debts have nev­er been paid. Bonn scored a deci­sive suc­cess in 1953 with the so-called Lon­don Debt Agree­ment, achiev­ing a gigan­tic debt can­ce­la­tion, in the frame­work of which Greece also waived its for­mer occupier’s enor­mous debts. That agree­ment per­mit­ted the Fed­eral Repub­lic of Ger­many the expunc­tion of enor­mous debts, cre­ated both before and since World War II. The agree­ment also stip­u­lated that the ques­tion of the pay­ment of Nazi debts and repa­ra­tions would first be solved with a peace treaty con­cluded with a “reunit­ed” Ger­many. [The Fed­eral Repub­lic of] “Ger­many has been in a very good posi­tion ever since, even as oth­er Euro­peans were forced to endure the bur­dens of World War II and the con­se­quences of the Ger­man occu­pa­tion,” says the econ­o­mist Ritschl. This has made the resur­gence of the “great­est debt trans­gres­sor of the 20th Cen­tury,” name­ly, Ger­many, possible.[2] . . . .

2b. Accord­ing to STERN mag­a­zine, Ger­many owes Greece the equiv­a­lent of 300 bil­lion Euros from World War II.

“Ger­many’s STERN — Ger­many Owes Greece 300 Bil­lion Euros from WWII” by Hel­las Frappe; hellasfrappe.blogspot.uk; 9/27/2012. [17]

The week­ly Ger­man “Stern” mag­a­zine this week ded­i­cat­ed one of its columns to the issue of Ger­man war repa­ra­tions to Greece, while it also at the same time notes that Berlin has only giv­en Greece 37 mil­lion Euros to save the almighty Euro. The arti­cle said reveals that Greeks wish Ger­many would final­ly pay the war repa­ra­tions because it believes Berlin owes much to the coun­try for the dam­ages and atroc­i­ties it caused dur­ing World War II.

The issue of war repa­ra­tions appears reg­u­lar­ly in Greek news­pa­pers, claims the arti­cle, but notes that no such dis­cus­sion (or claim) has been raised by both Athens and Berlin. The mag­a­zine also blast­ed the deci­sion by the Ger­man gov­ern­ment which said two weeks ago that the issue of war repa­ra­tions to Greece has lost its mean­ing. A spokesman for the Ger­man Min­istry of For­eign Affairs said that “the fed­er­a­tion of Ger­man believes that after many decades, the issue of war repa­ra­tions has lost its mean­ing.” The state­ment was made of course after Athens estab­lished a work­ing group in order to study old doc­u­ments and esti­mate the exact amount of the repa­ra­tions.

“The fact is, the Greeks are among the nations that suf­fered the most under Nazi occu­pa­tion. Their will to resist was fatal. First up was a leg­endary telegram that the Athens dic­ta­tor Gen­er­al Metaxas sent in Octo­ber 1940 to Fas­cist Italy — in response to Mus­solin­i’s ulti­ma­tum to sur­ren­der. It con­tained the plain text “ochi” (no), which is why the Greeks cel­e­brate to this day every Octo­ber to “Ochi Day”. Short­ly there­after, the Ital­ians attacked Greece and although numer­i­cal­ly more supe­ri­or, were total­ly pushed back behind the Alban­ian bor­der.

Then Hitler sent his troops and was also met with mas­sive oppo­si­tion. When the Nazis final­ly tri­umphed, they set up a bru­tal occu­pa­tion regime in order to show the world what can hap­pen when small coun­tries do not sub­mit. In Crete, which was par­tic­u­lar­ly com­pet­i­tive, an order was giv­en that said that for every fall­en Wehrma­cht sol­dier, ten Cre­tans should die. (As a result) 30 island vil­lages were destroyed. On the over­all, more than 80,000 Greeks. or 7.2 per­cent of the pop­u­la­tion died between 1941–1944.”

The arti­cle then speaks about the “inter­est-free loan” to Hitler.

The fas­cists, claims the same arti­cle, attacked, pil­laged and destroyed Greece’s indus­tri­al pro­duc­tion equip­ment, crops, etc. Hitler, it adds, even forced the Nation­al Bank of Greece, to lend Ger­many inter­est-free mon­ey. The total amount “of these gov­ern­ment bonds totaled 476 mil­lion Reichs­marks, which today cor­re­sponds to ten bil­lion euros.”

The sub­ject of war repa­ra­tions was first nego­ti­at­ed in the autumn of 1945 in Paris. At the time, adds the same arti­cle, Greece was ask­ing for ten bil­lion US dol­lars, which was viewed by all con­fer­ence par­tic­i­pants to be a lit­tle over exag­ger­at­ed, espe­cial­ly the US, so Greece was appar­ent­ly award­ed with 30,000 tons of Ger­man indus­tri­al goods with an esti­mat­ed val­ue of approx­i­mate­ly US $25 mil­lion (or two bil­lion euros at today’s rates). But, the same arti­cle writes “these prod­ucts have nev­er made it to Greece.” . . .

2c. Tagesspiegel main­tains that the dam­age done to Greece “destroyed” the coun­try.

Tagesspiegel Says Nazis Destroyed Greece” by Maria Korol­o­gou; Greek Reporter [Europe]; 4/11/2013. [35]

The clas­si­cal lib­er­al Ger­man news­pa­per Tagesspiegel, crit­i­ciz­ing Germany’s refusal to pay more war repa­ra­tions to Greece for World War II, said the Nazis did more dam­age there than in any oth­er coun­try.

Tagesspiegel cat­a­logued the hor­ror and suf­fer­ing that Hitler’s forces brought to Greece: “130,000 civil­ians, women and chil­dren, were exe­cut­ed in retal­i­a­tion for rebel attacks. 70,000 Jews were tak­en to con­cen­tra­tion camps, 300,000 suf­fered frost­bite and hunger, because the Ger­mans con­fis­cat­ed food and fuel. Fifty per­cent of the country’s infra­struc­ture and 75% of indus­try were destroyed”. . . .

. . . . The paper said that if Ger­many paid Greece what it is alleged to owe, it would dra­mat­i­cal­ly improve Greece’s like­li­hood of over­com­ing its crush­ing eco­nom­ic cri­sis.

“The Greek gov­ern­ment appears to push­es the issue away. After the con­clu­sion of a group of experts on the top­ic, the Greek Min­istry of For­eign Affairs will ask the opin­ion of the state’s law offi­cials, in order for the deci­sion to be post­poned in every way,” it added.

2d. The Greek par­lia­ment has unan­i­mous­ly vot­ed that Greece must ask Ger­many to pay war repa­ra­tions.

“It’s A Mir­a­cle — Greek Par­lia­ment Unan­i­mous­ly Agrees — Greece Must Ask Ger­many To Pay War Repa­ra­tions” by Hel­las Frappe; hellasfrappeblogspot.gr;   4/12/2013. [14]

For the first time in decades every sin­gle par­ty in the Greek par­lia­ment is in unan­i­mous agree­ment. Greece needs to for­mal­ly ask Ger­many to pay back the mon­ey owed from the Sec­ond World War. This includes the war repa­ra­tions as well as a forced occu­pa­tion loan. A provoca­tive state­ment made by Ger­man Finance Min­is­ter Wolf­gang Schaeu­ble on Thurs­day not­ing that Greece should avoid the issue of war repa­ra­tions and rather con­cen­trate on reforms only ignit­ed the flame which is now grow­ing into a fire.

Schaeu­ble was refer­ring to a top-secret report com­piled at the behest of the Finance Min­istry in Athens. Leaked by To Vima news­pa­per on Sun­day, the report sug­gest­ed that Ger­many owes Greece 162 bil­lion euros in World War II repa­ra­tions.

In essence, the polit­i­cal par­ties are urg­ing the gov­ern­ment to take the nec­es­sary legal steps to claim the 162 bil­lion Euros (with­out the inter­est), that are due to Greece as a result of Nazi occu­pa­tion and a forced war loan. (The 108 bil­lion for Greece’s infra­struc­ture and 54 bil­lion for the forced loan).

Respond­ing to Schaeuble’s state­ments, For­eign Min­is­ter Dim­itris Avramopou­los said that the reforms being car­ried out in Greece bear no rela­tion – and can bear no rela­tion – to the issue of Ger­man repa­ra­tions, adding that the Greek state has been rais­ing the issue for many years.
“Whether this case has been resolved or not is deter­mined by inter­na­tion­al jus­tice, giv­en that, by its nature, this issue con­cerns inter­na­tion­al law and the inter­na­tion­al jus­tice organs,” Avramopou­los said.

“Greece is not ‘los­ing its focus’ on the reform pol­i­cy, despite the great sac­ri­fices the Greek peo­ple are shoul­der­ing,” he added.

In com­ments made to Ger­many’s Neue Osnabruck­er Zeitung news­pa­per, Schaeu­ble said the issue of war com­pen­sa­tions has already been “set­tled.”

Mean­while, the Ger­man Tagesspiegel news­pa­per, slammed the Berlin gov­ern­men­t’s stance on the issue not­ing that the Nazis did more dam­age in Greece than in any oth­er coun­try they occu­pied. The news­pa­per said that Hitler’s forces were respon­si­ble for the death of many men, women and chil­dren.

Specif­i­cal­ly it said 70,000 Jews were tak­en to con­cen­tra­tion camps, 300,000 suf­fered frost­bite and hunger because the Ger­man forces con­fis­cat­ed all food and fuel, 50 per­cent of Greece’s infra­struc­ture and 75 per­cent of the coun­try’s indus­try were total­ly destroyed.

The issue of war repa­ra­tions has been a con­tentious and legal­ly com­pli­cat­ed one for decades. Nazi Ger­many, which occu­pied Greece from 1941–44, forced Athens to extend it loans and give up gold reserves. There was also the ques­tion of the destruc­tion of infra­struc­ture and com­pen­sa­tion claims filed by indi­vid­u­als who sur­vived Nazi atroc­i­ties. As a result, Greece suf­fered great­ly and unlike every oth­er coun­try Ger­many went to war with, only Greece has nev­er been paid com­pen­sa­tion. [This is not entire­ly cor­rect. The for­mer U.S.S.R. was nev­er com­pen­sat­ed either–D.E.]

Cam­paign­ers say the Paris Repa­ra­tions Agree­ment of 1946 oblig­es Ger­many to pay Greece around bil­lions of Euro.

There has long been a vocif­er­ous lob­by call­ing for war repa­ra­tions from Ger­many, with the so-called “Nation­al Coun­cil” call­ing for more than 500 bil­lion Euros in war repa­ra­tions (with inter­ests), as well as the forced loan (with inter­est), but also for oth­er com­modi­ties such as stolen art work and the loss of 50pc of eco­nom­ic out­put over almost four years. . . .

2e. The Greek cit­i­zen­ry is in agree­ment with that coun­try’s par­lia­ment.

“Most Greeks Want Gov­ern­ment to Pur­sue Ger­many for War Repa­ra­tions” by Kate­ri­na Niko­las; Dig­i­tal Jour­nal; 4/17/2013. [18]

Eight out of 10 Greeks believe the gov­ern­ment should pur­sue Ger­many over war repa­ra­tions, fol­low­ing a clas­si­fied report by the Greek Finance Min­istry indi­cat­ing the debt stands at €162 bil­lion.

Ekathimeri­ni report­ed almost 90 per­cent of Greeks con­sid­er dam­ages should be sought. Last week Dig­i­tal Jour­nal report­ed leaked details of the clas­si­fied report com­mis­sioned by the Greek gov­ern­ment con­clud­ed “the out­stand­ing debt is com­prised of €108 bil­lion for dam­age to infra­struc­ture and €54 bil­lion for the forced loans demand­ed by the Nazis.”

Ger­man Finance Min­is­ter Wolf­gang Schaeu­ble respond­ed to the issue of war repa­ra­tions by dis­miss­ing the issue as already set­tled, say­ing: “I deem that such state­ments are irre­spon­si­ble. Instead of mis­lead­ing the peo­ple in Greece it would be bet­ter to show them the road to reforms.”

His words drew a strong response from Greek For­eign Min­is­ter Dim­itris Avramopou­los who stat­ed: “The reforms being car­ried out in Greece bear no rela­tion – and can bear no rela­tion – to the issue of Ger­man repa­ra­tions. Whether this case has been resolved or not is deter­mined by inter­na­tion­al jus­tice, giv­en that, by its nature, this issue con­cerns inter­na­tion­al law and the inter­na­tion­al jus­tice organs.”

Accord­ing to Hel­las Frappe (which out­lines the details of the repa­ra­tions due) every sin­gle par­ty in the Greek Par­lia­ment is in unan­i­mous agree­ment that Greece should ask Ger­many to pay back the mon­ey owed.

DW [Deutsche Welle] reports Ger­man his­to­ri­an Hagen Fleis­ch­er argues the issue is not set­tled but believes Greece should focus on the forced occu­pa­tion loan, esti­mat­ed to be €7 bil­lion with­out inter­est. Fleis­ch­er says that whilst Ger­many will not allow Greece to set a prece­dent over repa­ra­tion demands, the loan should be pur­sued. . . .

2f. Note that Ger­many itself default­ed on the bonds it issued to revi­tal­ize its econ­o­my after World War II.

“Ger­many Defaults–and Lies about It;” Ger­many Watch; 4/17/2013.  [20]

. . . . It start­ed in the 1920’s when Ger­many issued series of bear­er bonds in the USA for revi­tal­i­sa­tion of its econ­o­my fol­low­ing the dev­as­tat­ing effects of WWI. Act­ing as trustees, finan­cial insti­tu­tions such as JP Mor­gan and Lee Hig­gins & Co. pro­duced and sold bonds in Amer­i­ca rais­ing funds that would be invest­ed in Ger­many.

These bonds cor­re­spond­ed to Agri­cul­tur­al Loans signed by 14 Ger­man banks and guar­an­teed by the Ger­man gov­ern­ment. Of these 14 banks four are still active and are part of the troi­ka mech­a­nism.

From 1933, Ger­many default­ed on inter­est repay­ments to Bond­hold­ers, as the new Nazi lead­er­ship con­sid­ered the debt that Ger­many faced fol­low­ing WWI as ille­gal and issued a mora­to­ri­um on bonds owed to for­eign investors.

In 1953 fol­low­ing years of Ger­man debt cri­sis, the Lon­don Debt Agree­ment restruc­tured Germany’s debt to be sus­tain­able by the agree­ment of its cred­i­tors.

The way this deal would func­tion was to pro­vide the option to the bond­hold­ers of Ger­man debt, to either accept the repay­ment terms of the LDA, or to forego attempts to claim their debt until 1993. The ratio­nale being, that you can cash in today from a weak Ger­many, or wait for a full set­tle­ment after 40 years of Ger­man growth and devel­op­ment.

Assent­ing Bond­hold­ers: For bond­hold­ers who want­ed to cash in their bonds imme­di­ate­ly, they could receive par­tial pay­ment, and new bonds, with a dis­count on the val­ue of their bonds (depend­ing on the issue, between 20% — 60%). For this to be imple­ment­ed cor­rect­ly, a pro­ce­dure of Val­i­da­tion was set up to ensure that any­one pre­sent­ing bonds for pay­ment, could prove that they were indeed the ben­e­fi­cial own­er. This would guar­an­tee that all of the dis­burse­ments paid went direct­ly to Germany’s cred­i­tors in the cor­rect manor.

Non Assent­ing Bond­hold­ers: For bond­hold­ers who chose to wait for full set­tle­ment by their next gen­er­a­tion in the future, their course of action was to main­tain the debt instru­ments (the bonds) safe­ly, and not request a set­tle­ment until the 40-year grace peri­od had expired.

Val­i­da­tion boards were estab­lished in the three US states (where the bonds were ini­tial­ly sold) to car­ry out the com­pli­ance require­ments for the bond­hold­ers who chose to accept the option pre­sent­ed in the LDA. Hav­ing per­formed their role, these boards were sub­se­quent­ly closed a few years lat­er.

By 1993 the Ger­man gov­ern­ment had suc­ceed­ed in revi­tal­is­ing its econ­o­my and began to respond to requests for pay­ment. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, they chose not to hon­our their debt. To the sur­prise of many bond­hold­ers, Ger­many would receive pay­ment appli­ca­tions with the phys­i­cal bonds attached, per­fo­rate the bonds, and stamp them as invalid.

The rea­sons giv­en by the Ger­man Gov­ern­ment and its sub­sidiary bod­ies are: Ger­many has com­piled a list of Bond ser­i­al num­bers that Ger­many con­sid­ers stolen, and hence invalid. The pro­ce­dure of val­i­da­tion must be com­plied with.

The Ger­man gov­ern­ment claims that dur­ing WWII Russ­ian sol­diers loot­ed the Reichs­bank vault, where many bonds were kept, and that these bonds were rein­tro­duced into the mar­ket for pay­ment. The sim­ple prob­lem with this claim is that the only bonds that were in the Ger­man vault, had already been paid off or pledged, for which there is a pub­lic record, and no active bond­hold­ers had their bonds phys­i­cal­ly in Ger­many. Fur­ther­more, the build­ing which housed the Reichs­bank had been com­plete­ly destroyed, the con­tents of which had been removed by Ger­many before the arrival of Russ­ian sol­diers to Berlin.

The bonds were “bear­er” instru­ments, and bond­hold­ers would cut off the coupons from the papers for their inter­est repay­ments. This claim how­ev­er, was accept­able in the few years imme­di­ate­ly fol­low­ing the war, as it was obvi­ous bond­hold­ers would not be able to recov­er their prin­ci­pal or inter­est at the time, and was the rea­sons for the Val­i­da­tion Pro­ce­dure out­lined in the Lon­don Debt Agree­ments.

The so-called ‘Val­i­da­tion Pro­ce­dure’ which was intend­ed to apply to bonds that would be sub­mit­ted for pay­ment in 1953 added addi­tion­al secu­ri­ty require­ments for the bond­hold­er to com­ply with. Not only was it clear in the leg­is­la­tion that this only applied to Assent­ing Bond­hold­ers in 1953, sub­se­quent­ly indi­cat­ed by the clo­sure of the Val­i­da­tion boards, but it would be sim­ply impos­si­ble for any bond­hold­er to com­ply with them 40 years lat­er.

When bond­hold­ers and cred­i­tors have asked to see this list, the Ger­man gov­ern­ment cat­e­gor­i­cal­ly denied access, stat­ing that it is not in their nation­al inter­est, and has clas­si­fied this list as a “nation­al secret”.

What fol­lowed was a series of law­suits in the US where Ger­man legal defence has nev­er denied the lia­bil­i­ty for its debt, but has sys­tem­at­i­cal­ly used tech­ni­cal issues and delayed court cas­es, to the point that many bond­hold­ers have paid mil­lions more in legal expens­es. Many of these claims con­tin­ue today, by some of the sur­viv­ing bond­hold­ers, and the acquir­ers of that debt, and will be mak­ing appeals to the Euro­pean Courts in the near future.

There is no ques­tion in the minds of the many experts in bank­ing and law, with sub­stan­tial knowl­edge of inter­na­tion­al finan­cial instru­ments, that these bonds rep­re­sent unpaid debt of the Ger­man gov­ern­ment and its sub­sidiary bod­ies. . . .

3. The details of the agree­ment to which the Greeks are being sub­jected might be polite­ly described as stun­ning. The coun­try is being used as a vehi­cle for shoring up weak­ened Euro­pean finan­cial insti­tu­tions!

“Scan­dal: Greece to Receive ‘Neg­a­tive Cash’ from ‘Sec­ond Bailout’ as It Funds Insol­vent Euro­pean Banks” by Tyler Dur­den; zerohedge.com; 2/22/2012 [19]

Ear­lier today, we learned the first stun­ner of the Greek “bailout pack­age”, which cour­tesy of some con­vo­luted trans­mis­sion mech­a­nisms would result in some, poten­tially quite many, Greek work­ers actu­ally pay­ing to retain their jobs: i.e., neg­a­tive salaries. Now, hav­ing looked at the Eurogroup’s state­ment on the Greek bailout, we find anoth­er very cre­ative use of “neg­a­tive” num­bers. And by cre­ative we mean absolute­ly shock­ing and scan­dalous. First, as a reminder, even before the cur­rent bailout mech­a­nism was in place, Greece bare­ly saw 20% of any actu­al fund­ing, with the bulk of the mon­ey going to Euro­pean and Greek banks (of which the for­mer ulti­mately also end­ed up fund­ing the ECB and thus Euro­pean banks). Fur­ther­more, we already know that as part of the lat­est set of con­di­tions of the sec­ond Greek bailout, an’ ‘Escrow Account” would be estab­lished: this is sim­ply a means for Greek cred­i­tors to have a senior claims over any “bailout” cash that is actu­ally dis­bursed for things such as, you know, a Greek bailout, where the mon­ey actu­ally trick­les down where it is most need­ed — the Greek cit­i­zens. Here is where it just got sur­real. It turns out that not only will Greece not see a sin­gle pen­ny from the Sec­ond Greek bailout, whose entire Use of Pro­ceeds will be lim­ited to fund­ing debt inter­est and matu­rity pay­ments, but the coun­try will actu­ally have to fund said escrow! You read that right: the Greek bailout #2 is noth­ing but a Greek-fund­ed bailout of Europe’s insol­vent banks... and the Greek con­sti­tu­tion is about to be changed to reflect this! . . .

4a. Just how acute is the sit­u­a­tion in Greece? So bad that phys­i­cal edu­ca­tion teach­ers are excus­ing chil­dren from par­tic­i­pat­ing due to the fact that mal­nu­tri­tion pre­vents them from exer­cis­ing with­out becom­ing dizzy. These chil­dren may very well expe­ri­ence long-term effects from their “aus­tere” diet.

This is a text­book exam­ple of pol­i­tics as the con­tin­u­a­tion of war by “oth­er means”–applied von Clause­witz.

“Greece on the Bread­line: Chil­dren of Athens too Hun­gry to Do PE” by Jon Hen­ley; The Guardian; 3/13/2012. [22]

. . . It has been a com­mon secret among PE teach­ers for some time now that they don’t expect pupils to do PE any more, because many of them are under­fed and get dizzy. . . .

4b. Sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis of the toll of aus­ter­i­ty on the health of the Greek cit­i­zen­ry is stag­ger­ing.

“Squeeze Dry and Obscure”; german-foreign-policy.com; 12/17/2012. [23]

. . . . A trau­ma ther­a­pist, fol­low­ing his trip to Athens, has described the social con­se­quences and the total col­lapse of the Greek econ­omy, pro­voked by the Ger­man aus­ter­ity dic­tate. The ther­a­pist pro­vided sup­ple­men­tary train­ing for his Greek col­leagues, which was deemed exceed­ingly nec­es­sary because of the con­se­quences of the cri­sis. In the process, he also became acquaint­ed with the Greek social sit­u­a­tion and since has been com­plain­ing of the “gigan­tic obscu­ran­tist capac­ity” of West­ern Europe, where the aus­ter­ity pol­icy is being con­tin­ued, in spite of the cat­a­strophic sit­u­a­tion in Greece. For exam­ple, “entire res­i­den­tial blocks (...) are deprived of oil deliv­er­ies for finan­cial rea­sons.” Ille­gally felled trees are the sole source of heat­ing. Who­ever must go to the hos­pi­tal, “must bring his own sheets and bed cov­ers, as well as the own food.” “Since the clean­ing per­son­nel was fired, doc­tors, nurs­es and order­lies, who, for months, have not been paid, are clean­ing the toi­lettes.” The EU is warn­ing of “the dan­ger of an out­break of infec­tious dis­eases because of the dev­as­tat­ing hygien­ic con­di­tions.” The trau­ma ther­a­pist report­ed that “women, in their late preg­nan­cies, have to beg from hos­pi­tal to hos­pi­tal, because, hav­ing nei­ther health insur­ance nor enough mon­ey no one wants to help them.” The elder­ly, whose pen­sions have been cut in half, can­not even afford impor­tant med­i­cine. Since the cri­sis began, the rate of sui­cides, on the oth­er hand, has not been cut in half, it has doubled.[3]

Tremen­dous Rage

Accord­ing to the report, one need be “nei­ther a pes­simist nor an expert, to imag­ine what this means for inter­per­sonal rela­tions” as well as “for the cohe­sion of Greek soci­ety.” Rage against Greek politi­cians and “inter­na­tional pol­icy of finan­cial install­ments flow­ing into bail­ing out the banks, but not the peo­ple,” is “tremen­dous and con­tin­ues to grow.” A soci­ety that can pro­vide at least pro­tec­tion from the worst, would be able to absorb this rage, but Greece no longer has even this pos­si­bil­ity, explains the trau­ma ther­a­pist. In Greece “the func­tional soci­ety was pro­gres­sively under­mined until it col­lapsed like a dilap­i­dated house,” because “the cri­sis has destroyed the wel­fare state.” Rage is now turn­ing into aggres­sion and vio­lence. As a mat­ter of fact, in tra­di­tion­ally hos­pitable Greece, attacks — par­tic­u­larly against migrants — have suf­fered a vast increase. “The num­ber of vio­lent mobs that attack minori­ties is growing.“[4]

Racist Vio­lence

Human rights orga­ni­za­tions have already been com­plain­ing about this for months. For exam­ple, fol­low­ing the mur­der of an Iraqi refugee in Greece, Amnesty Inter­na­tional dis­cerned a grow­ing fre­quency of racist-moti­vat­ed attacks.[5] The UN High Com­mis­sion on Refugees report­ed in Octo­ber that between Jan­u­ary and Sep­tem­ber, alone, 87 xeno­pho­bic-moti­vat­ed attacks had been count­ed. This is “excep­tion­ally alarm­ing,” par­tic­u­larly in con­sid­er­a­tion of the fact that the actu­al num­bers are like­ly to be far high­er, since vic­tims were either too scared to report attacks to the police or were turned away, when they did.[6] The repres­sive forces are also using exces­sive force against migrants. In mid-Novem­ber, the US Embassy in Athens issued a trav­el warn­ing against a rise in vio­lent attacks against per­sons who, because of their com­plex­ion, are per­ceived to be for­eign migrants.[7] Cer­tain neigh­bor­hoods of Athens are con­sid­ered “no go areas” for migrants.

Plans for a Putsch

In the throes of the cri­sis, the rapid rise of xeno­pho­bia that has over­come Greece is flanked by a just as rapid rise of the extreme right. The neo-Nazi Chrysi Avgi par­ty (“Gold­en Dawn”), which is par­tic­u­larly known for its vio­lence against migrants, won 18 seats in par­lia­ment in the last elec­tions and — accord­ing to opin­ion polls — could win 12 per­cent today. Last fall, one of their par­lia­men­tar­i­ans declared that the par­ty is wag­ing a “civ­il war” against migrants and the left. Accord­ing to pub­li­cist, Dim­itris Psar­ras, who, for the past 20 years has been doing research on the Chrysi Avgi, “the esca­la­tion strat­egy (...) has a pri­mary sig­nif­i­cance” for that par­ty. “It is sim­i­lar to the strat­egy of Ital­ian neo-fas­cists in the 1970s and 80s: esca­late the con­flict on the streets, between the right-wingers and left-wingers — and in the case of Greece, the migrants — to cre­ate a cli­mate of inse­cu­rity, so that a putsch can be jus­ti­fied.” Psar­ras points out that not only the Greek neo-Nazis, but even “seri­ous media organs (...) are spec­u­lat­ing on pos­si­ble plans for a putsch.” He finds, “if the polit­i­cal and eco­nomic sit­u­a­tion becomes even more insta­ble and the soci­ety, more polar­ized, any­thing is possible.“[8]

4c. Greek fam­i­lies can no longer to bury their dead.

“Greek Pover­ty So Bad Fam­i­lies ‘Can no Longer Afford to Bury their Dead’” by Hele­na Smith; The Guardian; 10/18/2012. [24]

Van­na Men­daleni is a mid­dle aged Greek woman who until now has not had vehe­ment feel­ings about the cri­sis that has engulfed her coun­try. But that changed when the soft­ly spo­ken under­taker, clos­ing her fam­i­ly-run funer­al par­lour, joined thou­sands of pro­test­ers on Thurs­day in a mass out­pour­ing of fury over aus­ter­ity poli­cies that have plunged ever grow­ing num­bers of Greeks into pover­ty and fear.

“After three years of non-stop tax­es and wage cuts it’s got to the point where noth­ing has been left stand­ing,” she said draw­ing on a cig­a­rette. “It’s so bad fam­i­lies can no longer afford to even bury their dead. Bod­ies lie unclaimed at pub­lic hos­pi­tals so that the local munic­i­pal­ity can bury them.” . . .

4d. The toll on the health of the Greek cit­i­zen­ry stems from the fact that the require­ments for Greek health expen­di­tures are being cal­cu­lat­ed as an abstract bud­getary require­ment, rather than as what is actu­al­ly need­ed to sus­tain the health of the Greek pop­u­la­tion.“Aus­ter­ity Kills”; german-foreign-policy.com; 7/25/2013. [36]

The reor­ga­ni­za­tion of the Greece’s health sys­tem, under Ger­man direc­tion, is advanc­ing. “A final timetable is to be pre­sented in the sec­ond half of this year,” declared the Ger­man Health Min­istry (BMG). The Ger­man gov­ern­ment sees deficits also in the lack of an “effec­tive cost man­age­ment,” but most of all in the lack of “com­pet­i­tive ele­ments.” In a “Mem­o­ran­dum of Under­stand­ing” (MoU), the BMG and the Task Force for Greece (TFGR) have reached an agree­ment with the Greek gov­ern­ment on the intro­duc­tion of the high­ly crit­i­cized Ger­man-mod­eled so-called case flat-rates. The crit­i­cisms stem from the fact that patients are not being treat­ed in response to their med­ical needs but on the basis of eco­nomic effi­ciency. The mas­sive con­se­quences the aus­ter­ity mea­sures are hav­ing on the pub­lic health in Greece are becom­ing more evi­dent. A grow­ing num­ber of Greek cit­i­zens are los­ing their health insur­ance, due to unem­ploy­ment and there­fore must pay med­ical costs them­selves. The short­age of med­ical aid, for exam­ple, has caused an increase of 40 per­cent in the child mor­tal­ity rate since 2009. Dis­eases such as malar­ia or AIDS are spread­ing more rapid­ly. The Ger­man gov­ern­ment con­tin­ues to insist on its aus­ter­ity course in spite of these ram­i­fi­ca­tions.

With­in the frame­work of the EU aus­ter­ity dic­tates, Ger­many took the lead in the reor­ga­ni­za­tion of the Greek health sys­tem back in March 2010. “The Ger­man Min­istry of Health is in sup­port of the Greek government’s mea­sures to increase the effi­ciency and effec­tive­ness of long-term health care, by sub­stan­tial and effec­tive trans­for­ma­tions in the orga­ni­za­tion of its health sys­tem,” declared the State Sec­re­tary in the Min­istry of Health, Ste­fan Kapfer­er in Feb­ru­ary 2011, on the occa­sion of the sign­ing of the cor­re­spond­ing “Dec­la­ra­tion of Intent.” [1] The con­crete mea­sures had been spec­i­fied by the Ger­man Min­istry of Health and the Task Force for Greece (TFGR) in the April 2012 “Mem­o­ran­dum of Under­stand­ing” (MoU) with the Greek gov­ern­ment. These mea­sures include the intro­duc­tion of case flat-rates, a change in hos­pi­tal man­age­ment struc­tures, the reor­ga­ni­za­tion of the Nation­al Orga­ni­za­tion for Health­care Pro­vi­sion insur­ance (EOPYY) and new pric­ing mod­els for med­i­cine. The Ger­man GIZ devel­op­ment aid agency was giv­en the respon­si­bil­ity of the final elab­o­ra­tion of these plans, which there­by opens “new mar­kets in indus­tri­al­ized coun­tries.” .. . .

. . . . These pro­posed trans­for­ma­tions are being imple­mented with­in the frame­work of the aus­ter­ity mea­sures being enforced by Berlin. Accord­ing to the stip­u­la­tions hand­ed down by the Troi­ka, Greece’s health expen­di­tures should not sur­pass six per­cent of the country’s gross nation­al prod­uct — in Ger­many these expen­di­tures were at 11.3 per­cent in 2011. Since, as a result of the aus­ter­ity pol­icy imposed on that coun­try, the Greek GNP has been on the decline for years, the expen­di­tures for the health sys­tem are sink­ing dras­ti­cally. By 2012, these expen­di­tures were reduced to around 9.5 bil­lion Euros, from 14 bil­lion Euros in 2009.[5] The Greek gov­ern­ment has already shut down 46 of its 130 hos­pi­tals and cut the bud­get by 40 per­cent for those remain­ing. This has added thou­sands more to the unem­ployed cre­ated by the dev­as­ta­tion of the health sec­tor. . . .

. . . . Dr. Gior­gos Vichas, speaks of a “human­i­tar­ian crisis.“[7] Since 2008, the child mor­tal­ity rate has risen by 40 per­cent. The num­ber of HIV pos­i­tive drug users has risen from 10 — 15 in 2007 to 314 in the first eight months of 2012 alone — main­ly due to the dras­tic cut­backs in pre­ven­tive pro­grams. Malar­ia and tuber­cu­lo­sis, the West Nile and dengue fevers are con­tin­u­ing to spread. . . .

. . . . “The inter­ac­tion between aus­ter­ity pol­icy, eco­nomic shock treat­ments and defi­cient social pro­tec­tive mea­sures seems to ulti­mately lead to an esca­la­tion of the health and social crises in Europe,” con­cluded a study by sev­eral schol­ars pub­lished in the renowned “The Lancet” med­ical journal,[8] Epi­demi­ol­o­gists, David Stuck­ler and San­jay Basu drew the same con­clu­sion in their book “The Body Eco­nomic — Why Aus­ter­ity Kills.” . . .

6. Charg­ing that Ger­many delib­er­ate­ly exag­ger­at­ed analy­sis of the Greek debt, Zoe Geor­gan­ta not­ed that Greece was expe­ri­enc­ing “a new kind of occu­pa­tion by the Ger­mans.”

“Greece Revamps Sta­tis­tics Ser­vice Board after Row” by George Geor­giopou­los; Reuters; 9/16/2011. [21]

Greece said on Fri­day it would replace the board of its inde­pen­dent sta­tis­tics ser­vice (ELSTAT) after two mem­bers resigned and anoth­er was quot­ed as alleg­ing that 2009 deficit data had been arti­fi­cially inflat­ed.

It said ELSTAT chief Andreas Geor­giou would keep his post.

The upward revi­sion of Greece’s bud­get deficit in 2009 to 15.4 per­cent of gross domes­tic prod­uct exposed the scale of the country’s fis­cal derail­ment and sped up the debt cri­sis which is still rock­ing the euro zone.

“The 2009 deficit was arti­fi­cially inflat­ed to show that the coun­try had the biggest fis­cal short­fall in all of Europe, even high­er than Ireland’s which was 14 per­cent,” ELSTAT board mem­ber Zoe Geor­ganta was quot­ed as say­ing by the Eleft­herotypia news­pa­per. Geor­ganta said the inclu­sion of a num­ber of util­i­ties under the gen­eral gov­ern­ment inflat­ed the deficit. She said this had not been han­dled accord­ing to Euro­stat guide­lines and that the chair­man reject­ed the board’s objec­tions.

“We have a new kind of occu­pa­tion in Europe by the Ger­mans,” Geor­ganta told Real FM radio, adding that Ger­man offi­cials at Euro­stat put pres­sure on the gov­ern­ment to inflate the 2009 deficit to jus­tify harsh aus­ter­ity mea­sures. . . .

8a. The pro­gram reviews the Euro­pean Mon­e­tary Union as the real­iza­tion of the the­o­ries of Pan-Ger­man the­o­reti­cian Friedrich List.

Writ­ing in 1943, Paul Win­kler fore­saw that the Prus­so-Teu­ton­ics would real­ize their goals through the cre­ation of a Ger­man-dom­i­nat­ed cen­tral Euro­pean eco­nom­ic union (bear­ing a strik­ing resem­blance to today’s Euro­pean Mon­e­tary Union.) One of the prin­ci­pal influ­ences on List’s think­ing was the “con­ti­nen­tal” con­cept of Napoleon, who attempt­ed to eco­nom­i­cal­ly unite Europe under French influ­ence.

The Thou­sand-Year Con­spir­a­cy; by Paul Win­kler; Charles Scribner’s Sons [HC]; 1943; pp. 15–16. [25]

Charles Andler, a French author, summed up cer­tain ideas of List in his work, The Ori­gins of Pan-Ger­man­ism, (pub­lished in 1915.) ‘It is nec­es­sary to orga­nize con­ti­nen­tal Europe against Eng­land. Napoleon I, a great strate­gist, also knew the meth­ods of eco­nom­ic hege­mo­ny. His con­ti­nen­tal sys­tem, which met with oppo­si­tion even from coun­tries which might have prof­it­ed from such an arrange­ment should be revived, but, this time, not as an instru­ment of Napoleon­ic dom­i­na­tion. The idea of unit­ed Europe in a closed trade bloc is no longer shock­ing if Ger­many assumes dom­i­na­tion over such a bloc—and not France. [Empha­sis added.] Bel­gium, Hol­land, Switzer­land, will­ing­ly or by force, will enter this ‘Cus­toms Fed­er­a­tion.’ Aus­tria is assumed to be won over at the out­set. Even France, if she gets rid of her notions of mil­i­tary con­quest, will not be exclud­ed. The first steps the Con­fed­er­a­tion would take to assure uni­ty of thought and action would be to estab­lish a joint rep­re­sen­ta­tive body, as well as to orga­nize a com­mon fleet. But of course, both the head­quar­ters of the Fed­er­a­tion and its par­lia­men­tary seat would be in Ger­many. [Empha­sis added.]”

8b. List’s doc­trine was in full swing dur­ing Ger­many’s pros­e­cu­tion of the First World War:

“WW1 Cen­te­nary — His­tor­i­cal Revi­sion In British Gov­ern­ment Cir­cles”; Ger­many Watch; 6/11/2013. [26]

. . . . This is a direct trans­la­tion of [Ger­man Chan­cel­lor] Bethman-Hollweg’s inter­nal memo on Germany’s war aims, from Sep­tem­ber 1914. . . .

“. . . . We must cre­ate a cen­tral Euro­pean eco­nomic asso­ci­a­tion through com­mon cus­toms treaties, to include France, Bel­gium, Hol­land, Den­mark, Aus­tria-Hun­gary, Poland and per­haps Italy, Swe­den and Nor­way. This asso­ci­a­tion will not have any com­mon con­sti­tu­tional supreme author­ity and all its mem­bers will be for­mally equal, but in prac­tice will be under Ger­man lead­er­ship and must sta­bi­lize Germany’s eco­nomic dom­i­nance over ‘Mid­dle Europe’ . . .”

9a. The Lis­t­ian mod­el was put into effect by the Third Reich, as can be gleaned by read­ing Dorothy Thompson’s analy­sis of Germany’s plans for world dom­i­nance by a cen­tral­ized Euro­pean eco­nomic union. Ms. Thomp­son was writ­ing in The New York Her­ald Tri­bune [37] on May 31, 1940! Her com­ments are repro­duced by Tetens on page 92.

Ger­many Plots with the Krem­lin; T.H. Tetens; Hen­ry Schu­man [HC]; 1953; p. 92. [27]

. . . . The Ger­mans have a clear plan of what they intend to do in case of vic­tory. I believe that I know the essen­tial details of that plan. I have heard it from a suf­fi­cient num­ber of impor­tant Ger­mans to cred­it its authen­tic­ity . . . Germany’s plan is to make a cus­toms union of Europe, with com­plete finan­cial and eco­nomic con­trol cen­tered in Berlin. This will cre­ate at once the largest free trade area and the largest planned econ­omy in the world. In West­ern Europe alone . . . there will be an eco­nomic uni­ty of 400 mil­lion per­sons . . . To these will be added the resources of the British, French, Dutch and Bel­gian empires. These will be pooled in the name of Europa Ger­man­i­ca . . .

“The Ger­mans count upon polit­i­cal pow­er fol­low­ing eco­nomic pow­er, and not vice ver­sa. Ter­ri­to­r­ial changes do not con­cern them, because there will be no ‘France’ or ‘Eng­land,’ except as lan­guage groups. Lit­tle imme­di­ate con­cern is felt regard­ing polit­i­cal orga­ni­za­tions . . . . No nation will have the con­trol of its own finan­cial or eco­nomic sys­tem or of its cus­toms. [Ital­ics are mine–D.E.] The Naz­i­fi­ca­tion of all coun­tries will be accom­plished by eco­nomic pres­sure. In all coun­tries, con­tacts have been estab­lished long ago with sym­pa­thetic busi­ness­men and indus­tri­al­ists . . . . As far as the Unit­ed States is con­cerned, the plan­ners of the World Ger­man­ica laugh off the idea of any armed inva­sion. They say that it will be com­pletely unnec­es­sary to take mil­i­tary action against the Unit­ed States to force it to play ball with this sys­tem. . . . Here, as in every oth­er coun­try, they have estab­lished rela­tions with numer­ous indus­tries and com­mer­cial orga­ni­za­tions, to whom they will offer advan­tages in co-oper­a­tion with Ger­many. . . .

9b. The Euro­pean Eco­nom­ic Com­mu­ni­ty was for­mal­ly artic­u­lat­ed by Reich offi­cials dur­ing the war, with the clear design to extend and ampli­fy the arrange­ment after the war. Below, we quote Gus­tave Koenigs, Sec­re­tary of State at a 1942 con­fer­ence about the Euro­pean Eco­nom­ic Com­mu­ni­ty.

Europais­che Wirtschafts Gemein­schaft (Euro­pean Eco­nom­ic Community–translation). [28]

. . . At the moment the so-called “Euro­pean Eco­nom­ic Com­mu­ni­ty” is not yet fact; there is no pact, no organ­i­sa­tion, no coun­cil and no Gen­er­al Sec­re­tary. How­ev­er, it is not just a part of our imag­i­na­tion or some dream by a politi­cian — it is very real. . . .

. . .  Its roots are in the eco­nom­ic co-oper­a­tion of the Euro­pean nations and it will devel­op after the war into a per­ma­nent Euro­pean eco­nom­ic com­mu­ni­ty. . . .

9c. A  cap­tured Ger­man doc­u­ment from April of 1945–a few weeks before the end of World War II–that very suc­cinct­ly lays out the plans for post­war Europe.

Ger­many Plots with the Krem­lin; T.H. Tetens; Hen­ry Schu­man [HC]; 1953; p. 240. [27]

Doc­u­ment II


1. Lib­er­a­tion of the Ger­man peo­ple from sup­pres­sion and occu­pa­tion.

2. Repa­tra­tion of the expellees (Heimhol­ung der Ver­schleppten) [These are the ver­triebene groups and the Ger­man min­istry for Expellees–D.E.]

3. An inte­gral Ger­man racial com­mu­ni­ty.

4. Elim­i­na­tion of all arbi­trary acts by the ene­my.

5. Euro­pean Union on a fed­er­al­is­tic basis. [That IS the EU–D.E.]

6. Right to racial auton­o­my. [Note that, in the most recent Ger­man elec­tion, Pol­ish cit­i­zens of Ger­man extrac­tion were allowed to vote–D.E..]

7. Euro­pean Com­mon-Weal (“Gemein­nutz”).

8. Euro­pean Court of Arbi­tra­tion [The ICC is fund­ed by Ger­many and is essen­tial­ly a real­iza­tion of this!–D.E.]

9. Com­mu­ni­ty of relat­ed peo­ples with the final aim to cre­ate a Ger­man­ic Reich.

10. Com­mon-wealth between Ger­many and Bohemia and Moravia.

11. Guar­an­teed pro­tec­tion of racial groups (“Volks­grup­pen-recht”).

12. Eco­nom­ic inte­gra­tion of Europe. [That is the EMU–D.E.]


10. As not­ed in the remark­able piece repro­duced in its entire­ty below, the pro­gram Deutsch­land is impos­ing on Europe under­mines the secu­rity of any wealth invest­ed in the afflict­ed nations. Any­one or any­thing fool­ish enough to invest in Europe should be pre­pared to have their assets appro­pri­ated and/or negat­ed at some point.

In addi­tion, one should not lose sight of the fact that the “Final Solu­tion to the Greek and Cypri­ot Crises” [38] will, like pre­vi­ous, super­fi­cial steps to resolve the cri­sis, keep the Euro weak, ben­e­fit­ing Germany’s export-dri­ven econ­o­my.

One won­ders how much expo­sure U.S. banks have to Euro­pean finan­cial insti­tu­tions. If the fears of a con­ta­gion of bank runs and cap­i­tal flight destroys banks in the weak­er Euro­zone coun­tries, how will that affect Amer­i­can lenders?

The “Europa Ger­man­ica” is delib­er­ate and, to any hon­est ana­lyst famil­iar with the his­tor­i­cal record, pre­con­ceived.

The post below also notes the rel­a­tive eco­nomic weak­ness of Ger­many itself. Suf­fice it to say that most Ger­mans have not shared in the largesse of the past decade, although they have been spared the trau­ma vis­ited upon oth­er Euro­pean cit­i­zens. They are exceed­ingly vul­ner­a­ble to the pro­pa­ganda of their own media estab­lish­ment.

“The Mind­set” by Mark J. Grant [Author of Out of the Box] and Tyler Dur­den; Zero Hedge; 3/26/2013. [29]

In all of the tor­tu­ous moments that have tak­en place with the Euro­pean Union the one thing that has become appar­ent is a rad­i­cal change of mind­set. In the begin­ning there was a kind of demo­c­ra­tic view­point. All nations had a voice and while some were loud­er than oth­ers; all were heard. This is no longer the case.
There is but one mind­set now and it is decid­edly Ger­man. It is not that this is good or bad or even some­place in between. That is not the real issue. The crux of the mat­ter is that not all of the peo­ple in the EU are Ger­mans and so they are not used to being treat­ed in the Ger­man fash­ion, they do not live their lives like Ger­mans and, quite impor­tantly, they do not wish to be Ger­mans.

There is the prob­lem.

The Ger­mans will do what is nec­es­sary to accom­plish their goals. There is noth­ing inher­ently bad or evil about this but it is tak­ing its toll on many nations in Europe. In the case of Greece they went back and retroac­tively changed the covenants of the bond con­tract. They did not actu­ally admit this of course and they called it oth­er names but that is what they forced on Greece. In doing so they got the bond hold­ers to shoul­der a good deal of the expense of the bailout of Greece. You can say, “Right,” you can say, “Wrong,” but that is what they did. They accom­plished their goal.

Always remem­ber that the Ger­mans are under severe finan­cial pres­sure. They are still pay­ing the bill for the East Ger­mans. They sup­port Target2 and their econ­omy is just $3.6 tril­lion which is a frac­tion of the entire Euro­zone. They are try­ing to sup­port a house with less than desir­able sup­ports.

Then we come to Cyprus and they make it com­pli­cated and put one bank with anoth­er bank and take mon­ey from depos­i­tors and call it a “Tax” and say that peo­ple and insti­tu­tions are liable for where they keep their mon­ey when it is more than 100M Euros. All true of course but they do not allow for any “Rule of Law” or “Due Process” by the judi­cial sys­tem but just man­date that the mon­ey will be used to help pay Europe for a loan to the sov­er­eign gov­ern­ment. Then they also tagged senior bond hold­ers revers­ing their posi­tion of the last years so now, so that it can now be said with accu­racy; every­one is at risk. Con­se­quently they have to pay less and they have accom­plished sev­eral goals which are to pun­ish a “Casi­no Econ­omy,” to put Cyprus in the same posi­tion as Greece, which is not only bank­rupt but a ward of the Euro­pean Union, and final­ly to insist, by the use of mon­ey, that Cyprus suc­cumbs to the Ger­man demands. Note that CDS in Europe (Mark­it iTraxx Finan­cial Index) has jumped 22% in just one week.

It is the occu­pa­tion of Poland in a very real sense just accom­plished with­out tanks or blood­shed as mon­ey is used instead of arma­ments to dom­i­nate and con­trol a nation. Polit­i­cally you may “Hiss” or you may “Applaud” but there are con­se­quences here for investors that must be under­stood.

First and fore­most is that they will not stop. Noth­ing will be allowed to get in their way. It can be senior bond hold­ers one day, bank depos­i­tors the next, the dis­man­tling of some Par­lia­ment on the day after that, a wealth tax on cor­po­ra­tions on Thurs­day, the dis­al­lowance of div­i­dends on Fri­day; with every announce­ment to come on Sat­ur­day evening. The next week can be a cap on bank bonus­es, a demand that the cap on bank bonus sav­ings be returned to the State, a finan­cial trans­ac­tion tax that gets expand­ed and tax­es all bond coupons and the list goes on.What might be, could be, and noth­ing, absolute­ly noth­ing, will be allowed between Ger­many and her desire to con­trol all of Europe.

I do not speak of moti­va­tion here. I am not bash­ing Ger­many in the fur­ther­ance of their desires. That is a use­less and unnec­es­sary exer­cise. How­ever, what is pro­foundly nec­es­sary, if you invest in Europe, is to under­stand the risks that you are tak­ing. If you place mon­ey in secu­ri­ties on the Con­ti­nent then what is yours is theirs when they want it. I sug­gest you clear­ly under­stand that propo­si­tion and allow for that occur­rence.

You no longer have any excuse after Greece and Cyprus. Every­thing may be called “one-off” but noth­ing is “one-off” as Ger­many expands its pow­er wher­ever they can and by any means nec­es­sary. If you believe the pro­pa­ganda, if you believe what you are told every day by the Press then I can vir­tu­ally assure you that you will suf­fer dire con­se­quences at some point and you will now have no one to blame but your­self.

There is also one “unin­tended con­se­quence” of Cyprus and Greece. No one is going to invest in the local banks. Keep­ing mon­ey in the Ger­man banks, the Swiss banks or maybe even the French banks may go on but the local banks in each coun­try are fin­ished. In a clever move, the prob­lems with Greece and Cyprus will dri­ve the mon­ey from the local bank­ing insti­tu­tions in the trou­bled coun­tries. Watch for cap­i­tal flights in Spain, Por­tu­gal and Italy as their banks will be found unsafe and with good rea­son.

It is unknown, as of yet, if Ger­many can win this game. What can be said though is that, nation or investor, you will put your­self at per­il by get­ting in their way. The cur­rent risks, in my opin­ion, are dra­mat­i­cally more than imag­ined by many or gen­er­ally thought to be the case. There is no more invest­ing in Europe just gam­bling and spec­u­lat­ing and suf­fer­ing the con­se­quence of either. Any­thing can be changed, any­thing can be mod­i­fied, and when the for­fei­ture of people’s sav­ings is trum­peted as a “Tax” then even the Eng­lish lan­guage has lost some of its mean­ing.

“Bet­ter to be safe than sor­ry,” has nev­er had such impor­tant con­se­quences as it does now in the Euro­pean are­na of the Great Game.

11. For those who con­sider our analy­sis to be extreme and man­i­fest­ing hyper­bole, we present a dev­as­tat­ing cri­tique of Ger­man EMU pol­icy vis a vis the periph­eral economies of the euro­zone. Dis­cussing Cyprus as exem­plary of Ger­man method­ol­ogy and intent, Christo­pher T. Mahoney couch­es his cri­tique in alto­gether unam­bigu­ous lan­guage.

Mahoney is a for­mer Vice Chair­man of Moody’s! In the arti­cle below, he sounds very much like–well–Dave Emory!

“Cyprus: Vic­tim Of Ger­man Colo­nial­ism” by Christo­pher T. Mahoney; Project Syn­di­cate; 7/26/2013. [30]

ENTIRE TEXT: “We antic­i­pate the bank­ing res­o­lu­tion mech­a­nism for the Cypri­ot bank­ing sec­tor to result in a sig­nif­i­cant down­siz­ing of banks’ activ­i­ties and there­fore to severe­ly affect the eco­nomic per­for­mance of the island from 2013 onwards. We expect an accel­er­a­tion in the con­trac­tion of the Cypri­ot econ­omy in 2013, with a neg­a­tive real growth rate in the low dou­ble-dig­its and no return to pos­i­tive growth before 2016. Our view is fur­ther sup­ported by the neg­a­tive feed­back loop that expen­di­ture cuts may have on the econ­omy giv­en the impor­tance of pub­lic ser­vices, hence poten­tially chal­leng­ing future con­sen­sus on fis­cal strat­egy. We note that large uncer­tain­ties remain regard­ing the mag­ni­tude of fur­ther recap­i­tal­iza­tion needs for the finan­cial sec­tor giv­en the expect­ed sharp dete­ri­o­ra­tion in the oper­at­ing envi­ron­ment which will erode asset qual­ity, as well as the behav­ioural respons­es of all eco­nomic actors to the shocks expe­ri­enced by the finan­cial sec­tor (includ­ing risks of finan­cial dis­rup­tion relat­ed to the tim­ing and approach for lift­ing of cap­i­tal con­trols). In light of all the down­side risks and the lim­ited num­ber of upsides, we view Cyprus as like­ly to default again in the com­ing years, as reflect­ed by the rat­ing lev­el and neg­a­tive out­look. Although it is not its cen­tral sce­nario, Moody’s also sees a mate­r­ial risk of a Cypri­ot exit from the euro area which is cap­tured in the Caa2 coun­try ceil­ing. As a result of the imme­di­ate down­siz­ing of the bank­ing sec­tor and the expect­ed spillovers to rest of the econ­omy, espe­cially in terms of weak­ened con­sumer and investor con­fi­dence, we fore­cast that the econ­omy will con­tract by 12% this year and anoth­er 6.4% next year.”

–Moody’s, 15 July 2013

The pur­pose of EMU is to reduce the occu­pied states to penury in order to make them more like Ger­many, or Ethiopia. Ulti­mately the ques­tion is is: how low can per capi­ta income decline until “Europe” becomes a dirty word, and “lib­erty” becomes the pop­u­lar desider­a­tum. Cyprus is the lab­o­ra­tory of this exper­i­ment, along with Greece and Por­tu­gal. Here is the exper­i­ment: How many peo­ple must eat out of garbage cans before the euro elites under­stand that EMU is destroy­ing lives?

It must be pleas­ing to be ingest­ing a nice Brus­sels din­ner while dis­cussing how sub­hu­man the Cypri­ots are, and how they must be “taught a valu­able les­son”. That was how Stal­in felt about the “rich peas­ants” of the Ukraine: sur­plus emp­ty mouths to feed. Wouldn’t the world be a bet­ter place with­out so many peas­ants?

Per­haps, in a per­fect world, Cypri­ots wouldn’t exist, like the kulaks and the Crimean Tatars. All Cypri­ots do is enable Russ­ian plu­to­crats. Why should they exist? Liq­ui­date them. Indeed, liq­ui­date all of the par­a­site states of the Euro­zone.

So we now know that the pur­pose of EMU is not to enrich the vas­sal states, but to occu­py them and to make them penu­ri­ous colonies of the hege­mon. Periph­eral Europe is Germany’s Latin Amer­ica. But there is a cru­cial dif­fer­ence: the US has not forced its Latin Amer­i­can colonies to join the dol­lar zone. Latin Amer­ica, despite its colo­nial sta­tus, retains mon­e­tary sov­er­eignty. Aside from the Bol­she­vik lab­o­ra­to­ries of Argenti­na and Venezuela, Latin Amer­ica is out­per­form­ing its colo­nial par­ents. Por­tu­gal and Spain should have mon­e­tary union with Brazil and Mex­ico, instead of Fin­land and Ger­many.

What Ger­many is doing to Cyprus is a crime.

12a.  A very omi­nous pro­posal has been float­ed by the Greek gov­ern­ment [39]. (See text excerpts below.) Not only does it sug­gest the pos­si­bil­ity that the stag­ger­ing unem­ploy­ment rate among Greek youth be solved by “unpaid” employ­ment, [39] but floats the pos­si­bil­ity that job­less young peo­ple be shipped abroad!

We won­der to where they will be shipped? What are they sup­posed to do when they get there?

All is not well in the “Cra­dle of Democ­ra­cy!”

“Europe’s Mod­est Pro­posal To End Unem­ploy­ment: Slav­ery” by Tyler Dur­den; zerohedge.com; 1/24/2014. [31]

EXCERPT: Hav­ing spent weeks talk­ing amongst them­selves about the chron­ic and dan­ger­ous rise of youth unem­ploy­ment in Europe (as we warned here), the Cen­ter of Plan­ning and Eco­nomic Research in Greece has pro­posed a con­tro­ver­sial mea­sure. As GreekRe­porter reports, the mea­sure includes unpaid work for the young and unem­ployed up to 24 years old, so that com­pa­nies would have a strong motive to hire young employ­ees.

“Unpaid” work sounds a lot like slav­ery to us... but it gets bet­ter; the report also sug­gested “export­ing young unem­ployed per­sons.”

“Cen­tre of Plan­ning and Eco­nomic Research in Greece has pro­posed a con­tro­ver­sial mea­sure in order to deal with the prob­lem of increas­ing unem­ploy­ment in the coun­try.

The mea­sure includes unpaid work for the young and unem­ployed up to 24 years old, so that com­pa­nies would have a strong motive to hire young employ­ees. Prac­ti­cally, what is pro­posed is the abo­li­tion of the basic salary for a year. At the same time the “export” of young unem­ployed per­sons was also pro­posed to oth­er coun­tries abroad, as Greek busi­nesses do not appear able to hire new per­son­nel.“

Whether it’s Europe in the 1930’s or the US dur­ing the same peri­od (con­flicts between strik­ers, the Nation­al Guard and armed mili­tias), unem­ploy­ment can cre­ate a pow­er­ful cock­tail of unrest. But turn­ing your nation’s young into slaves does not seem like a good solu­tion to us. . . .

12b. More about the pro­pos­al for de fac­to slav­ery for Greek youth:

“Con­tro­ver­sial Pro­posal for Tack­ling Unem­ploy­ment” by Niko­leta Kalmou­ki; Greek Reporter; 1/24/2014. [39]

EXCERPT: Cen­tre of Plan­ning and Eco­nomic Research in Greece has pro­posed a con­tro­ver­sial mea­sure in order to deal with the prob­lem of increas­ing unem­ploy­ment in the coun­try.

The mea­sure includes unpaid work for the young and unem­ployed up to 24 years old, so that com­pa­nies would have a strong motive to hire young employ­ees. Prac­ti­cally, what is pro­posed is the abo­li­tion of the basic salary for a year. At the same time the “export” of young unem­ployed per­sons was also pro­posed to oth­er coun­tries abroad, as Greek busi­nesses do not appear able to hire new per­son­nel.

Accord­ing to the Nation­al Con­fed­er­a­tion of Hel­lenic Com­merce, unem­ploy­ment espe­cially hits the ages between 15–24. The unem­ploy­ment rate in Greece stands at 24.6% while 57.2% of young peo­ple are with­out a job. The major­ity of the unem­ployed (71%) have had no work for 12 months or more, while 23.3 % of the total have nev­er worked. There were 3,635,905 peo­ple employed and 1,345,387 unem­ployed. . . .

13. Bod­ing ill for Greek cit­i­zens, for­mer LAOS par­ty mem­ber and ded­i­cat­ed fas­cist Makis Voridis has been appoint­ed Health Min­is­ter.

“Yacht Apps and Anti-Semit­ic Min­is­ters in the Birth­place of Democ­ra­cy” by Mark Ames; Pan­do Dai­ly; 6/15/2014. [32]

Good and bad eco­nom­ics news out of the birth­place of democ­ra­cy.

The good news: Accord­ing to the Wall Street Jour­nal, Greece is see­ing a boom in tech star­tups. Of course, that boom starts from a very low num­ber, as the Jour­nal reports [40]:

“there were 144 star­tups in Greece in 2013, up from just 16 in 2010. The mon­ey invest­ed in them has climbed to €42 mil­lion ($57 mil­lion), com­pared with just €500,000 three years ago.”

Most of the fund­ing is geared towards ser­vic­ing the sec­tor of Greece that hasn’t been ruined by the past few years of EU-imposed aus­ter­ity, which rules out a large per­cent­age of under-35s, the pre­sumed Inter­net gen­er­a­tion. The unem­ploy­ment rate for young Greeks aged 15–24 is 58.3%, while for 25–34 year old Greeks, the unem­ploy­ment rate is 35.5%. Excit­ing new Greek star­tups attract­ing out­side VC cap­i­tal, like incred­i­blue [41]— an online yacht book­ing ser­vice — and Tax­ibeat [42], a mobile taxi­cab hail­ing app — aren’t going to be much use to them.

Still, Greece’s “boom­ing” tech sec­tor is the good news.

Now, the bad news: Greece’s pro-EU rul­ing con­ser­v­a­tive par­ty, the New Democ­rats, just named an actu­al neo-Nazi [43], Makis “The Ham­mer” Voridis, as Greece’s new Health Min­is­ter [43]Jew­ish groups are out­raged [44] over the news that Voridis—a long­time neo-fas­cist [45] activist and anti-Semi­te [43] who has pub­licly pro­moted the Pro­to­cols of the Elders of Zion as wor­thy of schol­ar­ship, and doubt­ed the authen­tic­ity of the Diary of Anne Frank—is serv­ing as a promi­nent min­is­ter in the rul­ing party’s cab­i­net, in charge of an impor­tant min­istry at a time when Greece has been gut­ting [46] its health care bud­gets, caus­ing wide­spread mis­ery.

I wrote about Voridis in Novem­ber 2011 [47], because I was shocked that a gov­ern­ment coali­tion essen­tially imposed on Greece by the EU and West­ern cred­i­tors would demand that the alleged­ly tech­no­cratic [48] “aus­ter­ity coali­tion” includ­ed mem­bers of Greece’s anti-Semit­ic, neo-fas­cist LAOS par­ty [49]Includ­ing Makis “The Ham­mer” Voridis [50], who served as min­is­ter of infra­struc­ture and trans­port [51].

I call him “The Ham­mer” because pho­tographs [52] sur­faced show­ing Voridis as a Uni­ver­sity of Athens law stu­dent, car­ry­ing a makeshift stone ham­mer in hand which he used to bash sus­pected left­wing stu­dents with. That was in 1985, when Voridis was in a fas­cist group called “Stu­dent Alter­na­tive” which sup­ported Greece’s bloody mil­i­tary coup [53] and mil­i­tary jun­ta that ruled from 1967–1974 [53].

Voridis was expelled from law school for club­bing left­ist stu­dents, and went on to Big Things in the world of neo-fas­cist Greek pol­i­tics. In 1994, he found­ed the far-right Hel­lenic Front, which in 2004 formed a coali­tion with a self-described Nazi, Kon­stan­ti­nos Plevris [54], who open­ly advo­cated for the exter­mi­na­tion of Greece’s remain­ing Jews. In 2005, Voridis merged his par­ty into the LAOS par­ty, whose leader, Geor­gios Karatzaferis, pub­licly mocked Auschwitz and Dachau death camps as “myths,” blamed Jews for 9/11 dur­ing a speech in par­lia­ment, and said “the Jews have no legit­i­macy to speak in Greece.”

In late 2011, as Greece pol­i­tics col­lapsed under the weight of its debts and the harsh EU-imposed aus­ter­ity mea­sures, the EU imposed a new “aus­ter­ity” gov­ern­ment that includ­ed “The Ham­mer” Voridis and oth­er mem­bers of the neo-fas­cist LAOS par­ty. The aus­ter­ity gov­ern­ment ran Greece until new elec­tions were called in mid-2012. In those inter­im months, the aus­ter­ity coali­tion pushed through rad­i­cal aus­ter­ity mea­sures that caused LAOS’ fas­cist vot­ers to desert them for an even more vio­lent, more extreme neo-Nazi par­ty, the Gold­en Dawn Par­ty. One would’ve thought that’d be the end of Makis Voridis.

But Voridis is one of the sly­er fas­cists. He joined the aus­ter­ity cab­i­net and served from Novem­ber 2011 through June 2012. In the June 2012 elec­tions, after LAOS was oblit­er­ated for par­tic­i­pat­ing in the aus­ter­ity gov­ern­ment, Voridis aban­doned LAOS and joined the new rul­ing par­ty that won the elec­tions, the respectable right-wing New Democ­racy par­ty.

And now New Democ­racy is pay­ing back the favor to their favorite aus­ter­ity fas­cist.