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FTR#1208 The Narco-Fascism of Chiang Kai-shek and the Kuomintang, Part 15

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FTR #1208 This pro­gram was record­ed in one, 60-minute seg­ment [5].

NB: This descrip­tion con­tains infor­ma­tion about the Dalai Lama not con­tained in the actu­al pro­gram.

[6]Intro­duc­tion: Con­tin­u­ing our series on the regime of Chi­ang Kai-shek–all but beat­i­fied dur­ing the Cold War–we begin by draw­ing still more on a mag­nif­i­cent book–The Soong Dynasty [7] by Ster­ling Sea­grave.

Although sad­ly out of print, the book is still avail­able through used book ser­vices, and we emphat­i­cal­ly encour­age lis­ten­ers to take advan­tage of those and obtain it. Sev­er­al lis­ten­ers have said that they were able to obtain the book because it is still in print!

I hope so! PLEASE buy it, read it, and tell oth­ers about it, either through con­ven­tion­al means and/or through social media. (Mr. Emory gets no mon­ey from said pur­chas­es of the book.) It is appar­ent­ly avail­able from Ama­zon on Kin­dle.

We also draw on anoth­er, alto­geth­er remark­able work by Peg­gy and Ster­ling Sea­grave–Gold War­riors [8].

As we approach the close of this series, we “dol­ly out” and present aspects of how U.S. pol­i­cy in Asia dur­ing the Cold War grew direct­ly out of the “mis­sion­ary posi­tion” that Amer­i­ca took toward China–a posi­tion that led direct­ly to war in Korea and Viet­nam.

Intro­duc­ing the expan­sion of Amer­i­can expe­ri­ence with Chi­ang and his Kuom­intang fas­cists into U.S. Cold War pol­i­cy in Asia, we present Ster­ling Seagrave’s rumi­na­tion about Stan­ley Horn­beck, a State Depart­ment flack who became: “. . . . the doyen of State’s Far East­ern Divi­sion. . . .”

Horn­beck “ . . . . had only the most abbre­vi­at­ed and stilt­ed knowl­edge of Chi­na, and had been out of touch per­son­al­ly for many years. . . . He with­held cables from the Sec­re­tary of State that were crit­i­cal of Chi­ang, and once stat­ed that ‘the Unit­ed States Far East­ern pol­i­cy is like a train run­ning on a rail­road track.  It has been clear­ly laid out and where it is going is plain to all.’ It was in fact bound for Saigon in 1975, with whis­tle stops along the way at Peking, Que­moy, Mat­su, and the Yalu Riv­er. . . .”

[9]The pro­gram con­tin­ues with review of the obit­u­ary of gen­er­al Paik Sun-yup of Korea, whose ser­vice in the Impe­r­i­al Japan­ese Army dur­ing World War II has been a focal point of con­tro­ver­sy in South Korea. Gen­er­al Sun-yup embod­ied the ongo­ing con­tro­ver­sy in Korea over Japan’s occu­pa­tion and the sub­se­quent unfold­ing of events lead­ing up to, and includ­ing the Kore­an War. “. . . . In 1941, he joined the army of Manchukuo, a pup­pet state that impe­r­i­al Japan had estab­lished in Manchuria, and served in a unit known for hunt­ing down Kore­an guer­ril­las fight­ing for inde­pen­dence . . .”

A post by Ger­man For­eign Pol­i­cy [10] sets forth Cold War his­to­ry involv­ing the BND/Gehlen “Org” and Chi­na.

Doc­u­ment­ing plans to launch a nuclear strike against Peking and Moscow dur­ing the Kore­an War, fol­low­ing up with Nazi-aid­ed Kuom­intang [11] tank war­fare to fin­ish the con­flict and spawn­ing a long Gehlen-Nazi advi­so­ry role with Chi­ang Kai-Shek’s [12] mil­i­tary, the post pro­vides his­tor­i­cal con­text in which the Covid-19 pan­dem­ic and the full-court press against Chi­na.

“When, dur­ing the war on Korea, a nuclear strike against Peking (and Moscow) had been relo­cat­ed (site of deploy­ment Guam, max. 34 Mark 4 atom­ic bombs), the suc­ces­sor of the Nazi espi­onage (Orga­ni­za­tion Gehlen) in Munich, ensured direct con­tacts with the Kuom­intang. Fol­low­ing the drop­ping of the atom­ic bombs, Kuom­intang troops were sup­posed to march, as occu­py­ing forces, through con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed ter­rain towards Peking. To sup­port the offen­sive of Kuom­intang tanks, con­sid­ered nec­es­sary by Chi­ang Kai-shek, Gehlen could offer spe­cial­ists from Munich: from the Reich­swehr and Nazi mil­i­tary. . . .”

” . . . . Leo Geyr von Schwep­pen­burg was work­ing with the Orga­ni­za­tion Gehlen . . . . The Nazi Gen­er­al, who, as hero of the Nazi tank divi­sions’ advance towards Moscow, had been award­ed the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, was now in action for Tai­wan and the Kuom­intang in the bat­tle against Peking. He per­son­al­ly instruct­ed the staffs of the nation­al­ist forces with orig­i­nal doc­u­ments of the Naz­i’s ‘Oper­a­tion Bar­barossa.’ He was per­son­al­ly answer­able to Chi­ang Kai-shek. . . .”

” . . . . In Tai­wan, Mun­zel’s BND group, dis­guised as a del­e­ga­tion of DAAD (Ger­man Aca­d­e­m­ic Exchange Ser­vice, Bonn) received Chiang Kai-shek’s son Wego, for­mer­ly a cadet in the Nazi mil­i­tary, now an arma­ments expert with con­nec­tions to the West Ger­man war indus­try. Chi­ang Wego’s assign­ment was com­pre­hen­sive and clear: to train new recruits for the offen­sive against Peking by draw­ing on the Ger­man expe­ri­ence gained dur­ing ‘Oper­a­tion Bar­barossa’ (fol­lowed by Mun­zel’s test­ing in Cairo) — and to pro­vide the appro­pri­ate weapons. . . .”

” . . . . While Mun­zel, under BND com­mand, set up a secret ‘exper­i­men­tal bat­tal­ion’ against Chi­na (1968), staff offi­cers of the Tai­wan dic­ta­tor­ship stud­ied at the Ger­man Armed Forces Staff Col­lege in Ham­burg, quite offi­cial­ly. . . .”

Note­wor­thy for our pur­pos­es, is the exter­mi­na­tion­ist tac­ti­cal approach under­tak­en by the West and draw­ing on Nazi exper­tise in draw­ing up oper­a­tional plans.

Note­wor­thy, also, is the con­ti­nu­ity of SS activ­i­ty in, or in con­nec­tion with, Asia:

  • In the 1950’s and 1960’s, Ger­man tele­vi­sion went “retro” with Goebbels’ Pro­pa­gan­da Min­istry, broad­cast­ing SS footage of an anthro­po­log­i­cal expe­di­tion to Tibet. ” . . . . The Nazi pro­pa­gan­da’s imag­i­nary pro­jec­tion of a peo­ple, weak­er than ‘inner Asians,’ who still had main­tained their puri­ty and must be pro­tect­ed was seam­less­ly trans­mit­ted. The noto­ri­ous SS-pro­duced film (‘Geheim­nis Tibet,’– ‘Secret Tibet,’ 1943) about Aryan genes in the Himalayan High­lands returned to the big screen of the movies. . . .”
  • The broad­cast mate­r­i­al fea­tured SS war crim­i­nal and mem­ber of the Tibetan Gov­ern­ment-in-Exile Bruno Beger.  ” . . . . The West Ger­man state was bare­ly a year old, and a nuclear strike against Peking was in the plan­ning stages (1950), when graph­i­cal­ly iden­ti­cal cin­e­ma posters pro­mot­ed the relaunch: ‘The orig­i­nal film about the Ger­man Tibet expe­di­tion.’ The film con­tains scenes with the Auschwitz crim­i­nal Bruno Beger (see Part II [13]). The scenes with Beger, who mea­sures the heads and bod­ies of the indige­nous peo­ple com­par­ing them to those of Aryans, con­veys racism as a stim­u­lus for mur­der, seem­ing­ly harm­less and inter­change­able . . . . as the Aryan her­itage in Tibetan Asia, threat­ened with dilu­tion by the yel­low per­il (from the Chi­nese state and Han Chi­nese) . . . .”
  • In addi­tion, the film fea­tured voice-over nar­ra­tion by the Dalai Lama’s SS tutor Hein­rich Har­rer: ” . . . . In the evening pro­gram, mil­lions learned how, sev­er­al years ear­li­er, the omnipresent TV mod­er­a­tor and alpin­ist hero had met the Dalai Lama — as the god­ly king in Lhasa, Tibet, who had offered his friend­ship to the white man from dis­tant Europe and who now finds him­self on the run from ‘Red Chi­na’ — with­out his indige­nous peo­ple. The white vis­i­tor, the omnipresent TV mod­er­a­tor was Hein­rich Har­rer, for­mer SS Ober­schar­für­er. . . .”
  • The Uighurs [14] (also translit­er­at­ed as “Uyghurs”) also draw [15] on Waf­fen SS her­itage and insti­tu­tion­al [16] momen­tum: ” . . . . The new Uighur gen­er­a­tion trav­eled via Turkey and filled the Mus­lim ranks of Gehlen’s agents in Munich, who had made their liv­ing for decades at Radio Free Europe (RFE), the intel­li­gence oper­a­tion in the Oet­tinger Strasse. . . . The elders of the Uighur com­mu­ni­ty in Munich (today the World Uyghur Con­gress, WUC) are very famil­iar with the blood pro­pa­gan­da, through their ser­vice in the ‘East­land-Legions’ of the Waf­fen SS (Turkestan 162nd Infantry Divi­sion). Berlin had promised them their own nation with the inclu­sion of Xin­jiang (‘Great Turkestan’), ‘iden­ti­ty,’ and Mus­lim law, to be able to posi­tion the great Ger­man ‘Reich’ at Chi­na’s bor­ders with Turk­men help. With the defeat­ed rest of the SS divi­sion strand­ed in Bavaria, they still had their hopes and are once again used against Chi­na . . . .”

Net­work­ing with Isa Yusuf Alptekin at the Ban­dung (Indone­sia) con­fer­ence was Ruzi (or “Ruzy”) Nazar [17], an Uzbek nation­al who fought in var­i­ous Third Reich mil­i­tary for­ma­tions, includ­ing the SS Dirlewanger Brigade. (Alptekin was a key Kuom­i­nang asso­ciate and the patri­arch of the Uighur sep­a­ratist move­mentAfter the war.) Nazar was a CIA oper­a­tive net­work­ing with the Nation­al Action Par­ty [18] (or Nation­al Move­ment Par­ty) of Alparslan Turkes.

Nazar rep­re­sent­ed the Anti-Bol­she­vik Bloc of Nations [19] at the 1984 WACL con­fer­ence in Dal­las.

1. Intro­duc­ing the expan­sion of Amer­i­can expe­ri­ence with Chi­ang and his Kuom­intang fas­cists into U.S. Cold War pol­i­cy in Asia, we present Ster­ling Seagrave’s rumi­na­tion about Stan­ley Horn­beck, a State Depart­ment flack who became: “. . . . the doyen of State’s Far East­ern Divi­sion. . . .”

Horn­beck “ . . . . had only the most abbre­vi­at­ed and stilt­ed knowl­edge of Chi­na, and had been out of touch per­son­al­ly for many years. . . . He with­held cables from the Sec­re­tary of State that were crit­i­cal of Chi­ang, and once stat­ed that ‘the Unit­ed States Far East­ern pol­i­cy is like a train run­ning on a rail­road track.  It has been clear­ly laid out and where it is going is plain to all.’ It was in fact bound for Saigon in 1975, with whis­tle stops along the way at Peking, Que­moy, Mat­su, and the Yalu Riv­er. . . .”

The Soong Dynasty by Ster­ling Sea­grave; Harp­er & Row 1985 [HC]; Copy­right 1985 by Ster­ling Sea­grave; ISBN 0–06-015308–3; p. 404. [7]

2. The pro­gram con­tin­ues with review of the obit­u­ary of gen­er­al Paik Sun-yup of Korea, whose ser­vice in the Impe­r­i­al Japan­ese Army dur­ing World War II has been a focal point of con­tro­ver­sy in South Korea. Gen­er­al Sun-yup embod­ied the ongo­ing con­tro­ver­sy in Korea over Japan’s occu­pa­tion and the sub­se­quent unfold­ing of events lead­ing up to, and includ­ing the Kore­an War. “. . . . In 1941, he joined the army of Manchukuo, a pup­pet state that impe­r­i­al Japan had estab­lished in Manchuria, and served in a unit known for hunt­ing down Kore­an guer­ril­las fight­ing for inde­pen­dence . . .”

“Paik Sun-yup, South Kore­an Gen­er­al Seen as Hero or Trai­tor, Dies at 99” by Choe Sang-Hun; The New York Times; 7/15/2020; p. A22. [20]

Paik Sun-yup, South Kore­a’s first four-star gen­er­al, who was lion­ized as a Kore­an War hero by the South Kore­an and Unit­ed States mil­i­taries but dis­missed by many in his coun­try as a trai­tor, died here on Fri­day. He was 99. . . .

. . . . Though wide­ly cred­it­ed for lead­ing his troops in a piv­otal bat­tle of the Kore­an War, Mr. Paik was a divi­sive fig­ure in his home coun­try. In 2009, a South Kore­an pres­i­den­tial com­mit­tee put him on a list of “pro-Japan­ese and anti-nation” fig­ures who had col­lab­o­rat­ed with Japan­ese col­o­niz­ers dur­ing their rule of the Kore­an Penin­su­la. . . .

. . . . In 1941, he joined the army of Manchukuo, a pup­pet state that impe­r­i­al Japan had estab­lished in Manchuria, and served in a unit known for hunt­ing down Kore­an guer­ril­las fight­ing for inde­pen­dence, though Mr. Paik said he had nev­er engaged in bat­tles with them.

He was a first lieu­tenant when Japan was defeat­ed in World War II and Korea was lib­er­at­ed. After the coun­try was divid­ed into the pro-Amer­i­can South and the Com­mu­nist North, Mr. Paik was among the Kore­ans in Japan’s colo­nial mil­i­tary who were recruit­ed when the Unit­ed States was help­ing to build a mil­i­tary for the South. . . .

. . . . IF Paik Sun-yup is called a ‘hero,’ what does that make Kore­an inde­pen­dence fight­ers who lost their lives at the hand of his old Manchuria unit?” asked Kim Won-woong, the head of Her­itage of Kore­an Inde­pen­dence, a group rec­og­nized by the gov­ern­ment for its mem­bers’ strug­gle for inde­pen­dence.

“If he real­ly want­ed to be treat­ed like ‘a Kore­an War hero,’ he should at least have expressed repen­tance and remorse for his pro-Japan­ese deed,” Mr. Kim added, in an inter­view pub­lished last year. “But he nev­er has.”

3a. A post by Ger­man For­eign Pol­i­cy [10] sets forth Cold War his­to­ry involv­ing the BND/Gehlen “Org” and Chi­na.

Doc­u­ment­ing plans to launch a nuclear strike against Peking and Moscow dur­ing the Kore­an War, fol­low­ing up with Nazi-aid­ed Kuom­intang [11] tank war­fare to fin­ish the con­flict and spawn­ing a long Gehlen-Nazi advi­so­ry role with Chi­ang Kai-Shek’s [12] mil­i­tary, the post pro­vides his­tor­i­cal con­text in which the Covid-19 pan­dem­ic and the full-court press against Chi­na.

“When, dur­ing the war on Korea, a nuclear strike against Peking (and Moscow) had been relo­cat­ed (site of deploy­ment Guam, max. 34 Mark 4 atom­ic bombs), the suc­ces­sor of the Nazi espi­onage (Orga­ni­za­tion Gehlen) in Munich, ensured direct con­tacts with the Kuom­intang. Fol­low­ing the drop­ping of the atom­ic bombs, Kuom­intang troops were sup­posed to march, as occu­py­ing forces, through con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed ter­rain towards Peking. To sup­port the offen­sive of Kuom­intang tanks, con­sid­ered nec­es­sary by Chi­ang Kai-shek, Gehlen could offer spe­cial­ists from Munich: from the Reich­swehr and Nazi mil­i­tary. . . .”

” . . . . Leo Geyr von Schwep­pen­burg was work­ing with the Orga­ni­za­tion Gehlen . . . . The Nazi Gen­er­al, who, as hero of the Nazi tank divi­sions’ advance towards Moscow, had been award­ed the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, was now in action for Tai­wan and the Kuom­intang in the bat­tle against Peking. He per­son­al­ly instruct­ed the staffs of the nation­al­ist forces with orig­i­nal doc­u­ments of the Naz­i’s ‘Oper­a­tion Bar­barossa.’ He was per­son­al­ly answer­able to Chi­ang Kai-shek. . . .”

” . . . . In Tai­wan, Mun­zel’s BND group, dis­guised as a del­e­ga­tion of DAAD (Ger­man Aca­d­e­m­ic Exchange Ser­vice, Bonn) received Chiang Kai-shek’s son Wego, for­mer­ly a cadet in the Nazi mil­i­tary, now an arma­ments expert with con­nec­tions to the West Ger­man war indus­try. Chi­ang Wego’s assign­ment was com­pre­hen­sive and clear: to train new recruits for the offen­sive against Peking by draw­ing on the Ger­man expe­ri­ence gained dur­ing ‘Oper­a­tion Bar­barossa’ (fol­lowed by Mun­zel’s test­ing in Cairo) — and to pro­vide the appro­pri­ate weapons. . . .”

” . . . . While Mun­zel, under BND com­mand, set up a secret ‘exper­i­men­tal bat­tal­ion’ against Chi­na (1968), staff offi­cers of the Tai­wan dic­ta­tor­ship stud­ied at the Ger­man Armed Forces Staff Col­lege in Ham­burg, quite offi­cial­ly. . . .”

Note­wor­thy for our pur­pos­es, is the exter­mi­na­tion­ist tac­ti­cal approach under­tak­en by the West and draw­ing on Nazi exper­tise in draw­ing up oper­a­tional plans.

Note­wor­thy, also, is the con­ti­nu­ity of SS activ­i­ty in, or in con­nec­tion with, Asia:

  • In the 1950’s and 1960’s, Ger­man tele­vi­sion went “retro” with Goebbels’ Pro­pa­gan­da Min­istry, broad­cast­ing SS footage of an anthro­po­log­i­cal expe­di­tion to Tibet. ” . . . . The Nazi pro­pa­gan­da’s imag­i­nary pro­jec­tion of a peo­ple, weak­er than ‘inner Asians,’ who still had main­tained their puri­ty and must be pro­tect­ed was seam­less­ly trans­mit­ted. The noto­ri­ous SS-pro­duced film (‘Geheim­nis Tibet,’– ‘Secret Tibet,’ 1943) about Aryan genes in the Himalayan High­lands returned to the big screen of the movies. . . .”
  • The broad­cast mate­r­i­al fea­tured SS war crim­i­nal and mem­ber of the Tibetan Gov­ern­ment-in-Exile Bruno Beger.  ” . . . . The West Ger­man state was bare­ly a year old, and a nuclear strike against Peking was in the plan­ning stages (1950), when graph­i­cal­ly iden­ti­cal cin­e­ma posters pro­mot­ed the relaunch: ‘The orig­i­nal film about the Ger­man Tibet expe­di­tion.’ The film con­tains scenes with the Auschwitz crim­i­nal Bruno Beger (see Part II [13]). The scenes with Beger, who mea­sures the heads and bod­ies of the indige­nous peo­ple com­par­ing them to those of Aryans, con­veys racism as a stim­u­lus for mur­der, seem­ing­ly harm­less and inter­change­able . . . . as the Aryan her­itage in Tibetan Asia, threat­ened with dilu­tion by the yel­low per­il (from the Chi­nese state and Han Chi­nese) . . . .”
  • In addi­tion, the film fea­tured voice-over nar­ra­tion by the Dalai Lama’s SS tutor Hein­rich Har­rer: ” . . . . In the evening pro­gram, mil­lions learned how, sev­er­al years ear­li­er, the omnipresent TV mod­er­a­tor and alpin­ist hero had met the Dalai Lama — as the god­ly king in Lhasa, Tibet, who had offered his friend­ship to the white man from dis­tant Europe and who now finds him­self on the run from ‘Red Chi­na’ — with­out his indige­nous peo­ple. The white vis­i­tor, the omnipresent TV mod­er­a­tor was Hein­rich Har­rer, for­mer SS Ober­schar­für­er. . . .”
  • The Uighurs [14] (also translit­er­at­ed as “Uyghurs”) also draw [15] on Waf­fen SS her­itage and insti­tu­tion­al [16] momen­tum: ” . . . . The new Uighur gen­er­a­tion trav­eled via Turkey and filled the Mus­lim ranks of Gehlen’s agents in Munich, who had made their liv­ing for decades at Radio Free Europe (RFE), the intel­li­gence oper­a­tion in the Oet­tinger Strasse. . . . The elders of the Uighur com­mu­ni­ty in Munich (today the World Uyghur Con­gress, WUC) are very famil­iar with the blood pro­pa­gan­da, through their ser­vice in the ‘East­land-Legions’ of the Waf­fen SS (Turkestan 162nd Infantry Divi­sion). Berlin had promised them their own nation with the inclu­sion of Xin­jiang (‘Great Turkestan’), ‘iden­ti­ty,’ and Mus­lim law, to be able to posi­tion the great Ger­man ‘Reich’ at Chi­na’s bor­ders with Turk­men help. With the defeat­ed rest of the SS divi­sion strand­ed in Bavaria, they still had their hopes and are once again used against Chi­na . . . .”

 “Berlin: In the Under­ground War Against Rus­sia and Chi­na (III)” by Hans Rudi­ger-Minow; Ger­man For­eign Pol­i­cy; 10/06/2020. [21]

When, dur­ing the war on Korea, a nuclear strike against Peking (and Moscow) had been relo­cat­ed (site of deploy­ment Guam, max. 34 Mark 4 atom­ic bombs), the suc­ces­sor of the Nazi espi­onage (Orga­ni­za­tion Gehlen) in Munich, ensured direct con­tacts with the Kuom­intang. Fol­low­ing the drop­ping of the atom­ic bombs, Kuom­intang troops were sup­posed to march, as occu­py­ing forces, through con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed ter­rain towards Peking. To sup­port the offen­sive of Kuom­intang tanks, con­sid­ered nec­es­sary by Chi­ang Kai-shek, Gehlen could offer spe­cial­ists from Munich: from the Reich­swehr and Nazi mil­i­tary. They had accu­mu­lat­ed expe­ri­ence — in the sup­pres­sion of riots and strikes dur­ing the Weimar Repub­lic and sub­se­quent­ly dur­ing exter­mi­na­tion oper­a­tions and Nazi mas­sacres in the East (“Oper­a­tion Bar­barossa”). Gehlen extend­ed the bloody trail of war crimes com­mit­ted in Europe to Chi­na.

BND Personnel

Leo Geyr von Schwep­pen­burg was work­ing with the Orga­ni­za­tion Gehlen, which, in 1956 became West Ger­many’s Fed­er­al Intel­li­gence Ser­vice (BND). The Nazi Gen­er­al, who, as hero of the Nazi tank divi­sions’ advance towards Moscow, had been award­ed the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, was now in action for Tai­wan and the Kuom­intang in the bat­tle against Peking. He per­son­al­ly instruct­ed the staffs of the nation­al­ist forces with orig­i­nal doc­u­ments of the Naz­i’s “Oper­a­tion Bar­barossa.” He was per­son­al­ly answer­able to Chi­ang Kai-shek.

Leo Geyr von Schwep­pen­burg’s com­rade-in-arms, Oskar Mun­zel, also seemed to be of val­ue to Gehlen and the BND, because of his expe­ri­ence in tank com­bat (3rd Nazi tank divi­sion, offen­sive against Moscow). Tank com­bat was cen­tral to Tai­wan’s mil­i­tary plans to raze Peking. Dur­ing the plan­ning of a nuclear strike (April 1951), Mun­zel was active in Africa — as coun­sel to the feu­dal Farouk regime in Cairo, which was seek­ing Mun­zel’s advice for its planned com­bat at Egyp­t’s east­ern bor­der.

Mun­zel knew the ene­mies, Cairo was wor­ry­ing about. Mun­zel had con­stant­ly encoun­tered them dur­ing the advance on Moscow: the Jews, ordered to be sum­mar­i­ly liq­ui­dat­ed, now being tracked down by Mun­zel and 70 oth­er West Ger­man Nazi experts in Cairo — dur­ing the plan­ning for wars with Israel.

His career brought Mun­zel to Mün­ster, to the tank troops of the Bun­deswehr (1956). Fol­low­ing his pro­ba­tion, he com­mand­ed a BND clan­des­tine mis­sion in the under­ground war against Chi­na.

Operation “Ming Teh”

In Tai­wan, Mun­zel’s BND group, dis­guised as a del­e­ga­tion of DAAD (Ger­man Aca­d­e­m­ic Exchange Ser­vice, Bonn) received Chiang Kai-shek’s son Wego, for­mer­ly a cadet in the Nazi mil­i­tary, now an arma­ments expert with con­nec­tions to the West Ger­man war indus­try. Chi­ang Wego’s assign­ment was com­pre­hen­sive and clear: to train new recruits for the offen­sive against Peking by draw­ing on the Ger­man expe­ri­ence gained dur­ing “Oper­a­tion Bar­barossa” (fol­lowed by Mun­zel’s test­ing in Cairo) — and to pro­vide the appro­pri­ate weapons.

Via Mun­zel’s BND group, which linked its own office in Tai­wan to struc­tures of the Pres­i­den­t’s intel­li­gence ser­vice (code­name “Ming Teh”), these weapons came from West Ger­many — with the approval of the West Ger­man for­eign min­is­ter: tank shells from Bölkow (lat­er MBB), bazookas from Diehl, “Mars” pro­pel­lants and war­heads, explo­sives and chem­i­cals from Dyna­mite Nobel.

Under the dis­guise of being Ger­man fac­ul­ty mem­bers at Tai­wan’s cul­tur­al col­lege, the West Ger­man offi­cers of the “Ming Teh” group expand­ed their influ­ence. The front direct­ed against Peking was rein­forced and now also became vis­i­ble. While Mun­zel, under BND com­mand, set up a secret “exper­i­men­tal bat­tal­ion” against Chi­na (1968), staff offi­cers of the Tai­wan dic­ta­tor­ship stud­ied at the Ger­man Armed Forces Staff Col­lege in Ham­burg, quite offi­cial­ly.

Stimulus for Murder

The arma­ment projects for a war against Chi­na were in line with exter­mi­na­tion con­cepts, which revived the colo­nial stereo­type of the “yel­low per­il” in impe­r­i­al dis­guise (“red drag­on”) and were not averse to an eth­i­cal man­date in their pur­suit of defense. The Nazi pro­pa­gan­da’s imag­i­nary pro­jec­tion of a peo­ple, weak­er than “inner Asians,” who still had main­tained their puri­ty and must be pro­tect­ed was seam­less­ly trans­mit­ted. The noto­ri­ous SS-pro­duced film (“Geheim­nis Tibet,” “Secret Tibet,” 1943) about Aryan genes in the Himalayan High­lands returned to the big screen of the movies.

The West Ger­man state was bare­ly a year old, and a nuclear strike against Peking was in the plan­ning stages (1950), when graph­i­cal­ly iden­ti­cal cin­e­ma posters pro­mot­ed the relaunch: “The orig­i­nal film about the Ger­man Tibet expe­di­tion.” The film con­tains scenes with the Auschwitz crim­i­nal Bruno Beger (see Part II [13]). The scenes with Beger, who mea­sures the heads and bod­ies of the indige­nous peo­ple com­par­ing them to those of Aryans, con­veys racism as a stim­u­lus for mur­der, seem­ing­ly harm­less and inter­change­able: some­times as the puri­ty of a peo­ple which must be pro­tect­ed from tar­nish­ing by Jews, and at oth­er times, as the Aryan her­itage in Tibetan Asia, threat­ened with dilu­tion by the yel­low per­il (from the Chi­nese state and Han Chi­nese). The brighter the appear­ance of the orig­i­nal fig­ure, the bleak­er the shad­ow of its antithe­sis deserv­ing liq­ui­da­tion.

As soon as Peking had reaf­firmed its claim to Tibet, the West Ger­man film indus­try gave its stamp of approval (“FSK” — Vol­un­tary Self Reg­u­la­tion) to the SS-film: since June 5,1950 approved for age 12 and old­er; (exten­sion of the approval in 1956; in its new ver­sion since Jan­u­ary 5, 2000 approved for all ages).

Portrayal of Foreign Peoples

Colo­nial racism which pro­vokes emo­tions in the under­ground war, and, using an eth­i­cal pre­text, diverts atten­tion from the hunt for prey (the resources and mar­kets, the land­scapes and lives), was revived on West Ger­man tele­vi­sion. Archa­ic pic­tures of rem­nants of indige­nous peo­ples, threat­ened with ear­ly death by mar­ket com­pe­ti­tion, obscured the focus on the aggres­sive maneu­vers aimed at “Red Chi­na” by BND espi­onage, mil­i­tary staff and arms indus­try.

As if Radio Free Europe (RFE) and its Munich BND agents had need­ed help, the pub­lic tele­vi­sion’s first (ARD) chan­nel pro­vid­ed a gigan­tic stage for sev­er­al decades (1963 — 2009), to its for­eign peo­ples series — with focus on Tibet.

Imperial

In the evening pro­gram mil­lions learned how, sev­er­al years ear­li­er, the omnipresent TV mod­er­a­tor and alpin­ist hero had met the Dalai Lama — as the god­ly king in Lhasa, Tibet, who had offered his friend­ship to the white man from dis­tant Europe and who now finds him­self on the run from “Red Chi­na” — with­out his indige­nous peo­ple. The white vis­i­tor, the omnipresent TV mod­er­a­tor was Hein­rich Har­rer, for­mer SS Ober­schar­für­er. He had joined the SA dur­ing the under­ground strug­gle for an Aryan Ger­many, had been received by Adolf Hitler as the con­queror of moun­tains, sent to the peaks of the Nan­ga Par­bat (for “ath­let­ic train­ing for the impend­ing war,” 1939). Har­rer embod­ied the white mis­sion: tran­scend all bar­ri­ers of the world with robust forces, a friend to harm­less races, and invin­ci­ble to com­pet­ing pow­ers.

In an eth­no­log­i­cal TV series, (with more than 50 ARD tele­casts of 45 min­utes, accom­pa­nied by radio and press fea­tures) colo­nial racism reached a high­er impe­r­i­al lev­el: Por­tray­al of For­eign Peo­ples (with TV focus on Tibet) in the under­ground war against resis­tance to the mar­ket (PR Chi­na).

Clandestine Reinforcements

When par­ties in Bonn reward­ed an insur­gency of the Tibetan nobil­i­ty (1987) with open attacks against Peking (“human rights vio­la­tions in Tibet”), and demand­ed an increase in the num­ber of schol­ar­ships for Tibetan exiles in Ger­many, Munich’s agents on the for­eign peo­ples front had long since made head­way: for schol­ar­ship appli­cants of anoth­er peo­ple that could infringe on the nation­al cohe­sive­ness of the Peo­ple’s Repub­lic, to the extent that its Turk­ish-Mus­lim sep­a­ratism became vio­lent: Uighurs from Tibet’s neigh­bor­ing region, the autonomous region Xin­jiang.

Fol­low­ing the exam­ple of “Ming Teh,” the group of BND mil­i­tary smug­gled in through DAAD, the Uighur milieu in the Bavar­i­an cap­i­tal was pro­vid­ed clan­des­tine rein­force­ment — legal­ly financed from the usu­al funds of the exquis­ite asso­ci­a­tion for aca­d­e­m­ic exchange.

USW Biblis

The new Uighur gen­er­a­tion trav­eled via Turkey and filled the Mus­lim ranks of Gehlen’s agents in Munich, who had made their liv­ing for decades at Radio Free Europe (RFE), the intel­li­gence oper­a­tion in the Oet­tinger Strasse. The radio sta­tion — in the mean­time expand­ed to include anoth­er pil­lar of the US financiers (Radio Lib­er­ty) — was appeal­ing, from Ger­man soil, in its Uighur pro­gram (USW Bib­lis and Lam­pertheim) for resis­tance against the influx of Chi­nese cit­i­zens, the alien-blood­ed Han, who are liq­ui­dat­ing the puri­ty of the eth­nic major­i­ty pop­u­la­tion in Xin­jiang (“geno­cide”), for Mus­lim law and “iden­ti­ty” in a sep­a­rate nation.

Great Turkestan, Tibet, Hong Kong

The elders of the Uighur com­mu­ni­ty in Munich (today the World Uyghur Con­gress, WUC) are very famil­iar with the blood pro­pa­gan­da, through their ser­vice in the “East­land-Legions” of the Waf­fen SS (Turkestan 162nd Infantry Divi­sion). Berlin had promised them their own nation with the inclu­sion of Xin­jiang (“Great Turkestan”), “iden­ti­ty,” and Mus­lim law, to be able to posi­tion the great Ger­man “Reich” at Chi­na’s bor­ders with Turk­men help. With the defeat­ed rest of the SS divi­sion strand­ed in Bavaria, they still had their hopes and are once again used against Chi­na — as the Nazis had used the indige­nous inhab­i­tants in the Himalayan High­lands, whose region of set­tle­ment (Tibet) and the region of the Uighurs (Xin­jiang) make up a third of Chi­na’s ter­ri­to­ry.

If Hong Kong is includ­ed, it seems that the west­ern side has sev­er­al levers at its dis­pos­al for use in the fight against Chi­na: first, inter­nal dis­in­te­gra­tion (eth­nic-based insur­gency move­ments at Chi­na’s periph­ery, social dis­lo­ca­tion in met­ro­pol­i­tan areas) and sec­ond, exter­nal mil­i­tary inter­ven­tion (hav­ing Chi­nese from the base in Tai­wan fight Chi­nese.)

Leading Role

In the under­ground war, the sec­ond option has gained new impor­tance since the EU, under Ger­man influ­ence has inten­si­fied its Tai­wan pol­i­cy against Bei­jing. This per­mits Berlin to use, the polit­i­cal­ly devel­oped, ide­o­log­i­cal­ly elab­o­rat­ed spe­cial rela­tion­ship with the Kuom­intang — which has been main­tained since the days of the Reich­swehr and Wehrma­cht — to play a lead­ing role in the west­ern alliance against Chi­na.

Nuclear War

In all phas­es of Chi­na’s emer­gence, Ger­man glob­al pol­i­cy advanc­ing east­ward has been on the side of Chi­na’s ene­mies. When, with the found­ing of the Peo­ple’s Repub­lic, (1949) the emer­gence seemed irre­versible and a nuclear war was planned against Chi­na, West­ern Ger­many aid­ed with clan­des­tine rein­force­ments and mil­i­tary know-how. Still in the ruins left by the Nazi regime, the glob­al pol­i­cy of the suc­ces­sor state resort­ed to the his­tor­i­cal her­itage of the colo­nial crimes com­mit­ted in Chi­na: to stand up to the crim­i­nal poten­cy of its wartime com­peti­tors in the strug­gle for Greater Asia — even with nuclear war.

It remains wor­thy of this rep­u­ta­tion.

3b.  Impor­tant back­ground infor­ma­tion on this item of the pro­gram is con­tained in FTR#‘s 547 [22], 548 [23] among oth­er pro­grams. (Mr. Emory mis-iden­ti­fied the num­bers of the pro­grams in the audio file for this broad­cast.)

Key facts about the Dalai Lama [22] were set forth by for­mer key aides of his.

In addi­tion to a belief in demons and a reliance on mag­ic rit­u­als (some of them sex­u­al in nature), the Dalai Lama’s brand of Tantric Bud­dhism espous­es a mil­i­tant, war­like and intol­er­ant nature toward oth­er reli­gions. As not­ed by the Tri­mondis, there are some sim­i­lar­i­ties between this per­vert­ed man­i­fes­ta­tion of Bud­dhism and the Wahhabi/Muslim Brotherhood’s per­vert­ed man­i­fes­ta­tion of Islam.

The Dalai Lama’s brand of Tantric Bud­dhism con­tains what might be a viewed as “Bud­dhist jihadism.” In addi­tion, the Tri­mondis take note of the sig­nif­i­cance of the Kalachakra Tantra cer­e­mo­ny per­formed by the Dalai Lama, a sub­ject to which we will return lat­er in the broad­cast. In addi­tion, Tantric Buddhism’s apoc­a­lyp­tic vision of a cli­mac­tic war of the reli­gions (“Sham­bala War”) bears some sim­i­lar­i­ties to the fun­da­men­tal­ist Chris­t­ian vision of Armaged­don.

An inter­view with Vic­tor and Vic­to­ria Tri­mon­di by James C. Stephens; 9/11/2003 [24]

TRIMONDI: The XTV Dalai Lama, the God-King of Tibet is the high­est rep­re­sen­ta­tive of Tantric Bud­dhism, estab­lished in Tibet in the 8th cen­tu­ry, A.D. Tantrism, the last stage in the his­to­ry of Bud­dhism (since the 5th cen­tu­ry A.D. in India) is based on rit­u­al and mag­ic for­mu­las. Not unlike oth­er reli­gions it also has ‘skele­tons in its clos­et’ which it care­ful­ly con­ceals as a guest in the West­ern world. Tibetan Tantrism is a belief in spir­its and demons, secret sex­u­al prac­tices, occultism, mind con­trol, and an obses­sion with pow­er.

In con­trary to every demo­c­ra­t­ic cus­tom, the present Dalai Lama con­sults with the Nechung Ora­cle, a monk who is pos­sessed by a Mon­go­lian War God, on all-impor­tant state deci­sions. What pri­mar­i­ly con­cerns us about the inter­re­li­gious cer­e­mo­ny in the Nation­al Cathe­dral in Wash­ing­ton, D.C. is the lev­el of naivety in the West. For the past 25 years, the Dalai Lama has qui­et­ly per­formed the Kalachakra Tantra (‘The Wheel of Time’), the high­est of all ancient Tantric ini­ti­a­tions for tens of thou­sands of spir­i­tu­al novices in the West; intro­duc­ing Tantric ide­ol­o­gy, secret sex­u­al prac­tices, and mag­ic rit­u­als inte­grat­ed into the con­text of his reli­gious-polit­i­cal world view.

Crit­i­cal voic­es have been raised, while he con­tin­ues to secret­ly trans­mit the Kalachakra’s prophet­ic vision of the estab­lish­ment of a uni­ver­sal Bud­dhoc­ra­cy (Shamb­ha­la) in which spir­i­tu­al and world­ly pow­er are unit­ed in one per­son, the ‘world emperor’(Chakravartin), where­in oth­er reli­gions will no longer exist. . . . . In the Kalachakra Tantra is proph­e­sized the estab­lish­ment of a Bud­dho­crat­ic Empire, a clash of civ­i­liza­tions will arise as the mil­i­tary forces of Bud­dhism wage war against the armies of non-Bud­dhist reli­gions.

Mur­der­ous super-weapons pos­sessed by the Bud­dhist Shamb­ha­la Army are described at length and in enthu­si­as­tic detail in the Kalachakra Tantra Text (Shri Kalachakra I. 128 ‑142) and employed against ‘ene­mies of the Dhar­ma (Bud­dha’s teach­ings).’ Over the last five years in the Ger­man speak­ing coun­tries, these shad­ow-aspects of Lamaism have lead to a vast, steady and increas­ing stream of crit­i­cism in the media. Dur­ing the Kalachakra-Ini­ti­a­tion of the Dalai Lama last year in Aus­tria there were very con­tro­ver­sial debates on TV and radio sta­tions and press media. The inter­na­tion­al­ly well known news­pa­per Der Stan­dard pub­lished an arti­cle enti­tled ‘A War­rior Rit­u­al with the Dalai Lama: The Kalachakra’.

The Ger­man Week­ly of Chris­t­ian intel­lec­tu­als ‘Der Rheinis­che Merkur enti­tled an arti­cle: ‘What is hid­den behind the Kalachakra Tantra? Supreme­ly fero­cious war­riors!’ STEPHENS: Who are these non-Bud­dhist ene­mies spo­ken of in the Kalachakra Teach­ings? I’ve seen arti­cles in the Bud­dhist mag­a­zines the Shamb­ha­la Sun and Tri­cy­cle about Lamas dress­ing up in mil­i­tary uni­forms. I thought Bud­dhism was a peace­ful faith? TRIMONDI: The secret text of the Kalachakra explic­it­ly names the ‘lead­ers’ of Judaism, Chris­tian­i­ty and Islam as the oppo­nents of Bud­dhism: ‘Adam, Enoch, Abra­ham, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muham­mad and the Mah­di’ describ­ing them as ‘the fam­i­ly of the demon­ic snakes’ (Shri Kalachakra I. 154). The final, Armaged­don-like bat­tle (Shamb­ha­la war) ends in the total vic­to­ry of the Bud­dhists. The offi­cial Kalachakra-Inter­preter Alexan­der Berzin open­ly com­pares the prin­ci­ples of the Islam­ic ‘Jihad’ with that of the Shamb­ha­la war. As in the Islam­ic mar­tyr-ide­ol­o­gy Shamb­ha­la-War­riors, who will be killed in the last bat­tle have earned pas­sage into the [Bud­dhist] par­adise.

The mil­i­tary sce­nar­ios in some Bud­dhist Cen­ters such as the Shamb­ha­la train­ing camps of the deceased Lama Chö­gyum Trung­pa [25], have until now only a sym­bol­ic mean­ing, and yet they are inter­pret­ed as a spir­i­tu­al prepa­ra­tion of the proph­e­sized great Shamb­ha­la War. In the imag­i­na­tion of some Lamas all par­tic­i­pants in a Kalachakra ini­ti­a­tion have the ques­tion­able priv­i­lege of being reborn as ‘Shamb­ha­la War­riors’ in order to be able to par­tic­i­pate in the com­ing apoc­a­lyp­tic bat­tle either as infantry or offi­cers, depen­dent on rank. High lamas of par­tic­u­lar lin­eages have already been assigned to com­mand­ing posi­tions in the future. . . .

3c. Next, the Tri­mondis note the influ­ence of Tantric Bud­dhism (and oth­er East­ern reli­gions) on the phi­los­o­phy of SS chief Hein­rich Himm­ler. They also note that well-known Ger­man Bud­dhist teach­ers Dur­ck­heim and Her­rigel have been doc­tri­naire Nazis. In addi­tion, the Tri­mondis note that the Dalai Lama has main­tained close con­nec­tions with oth­er Nazis and fas­cists over the years, includ­ing “the French SS- col­lab­o­ra­tor, con­vinced anti-Semi­te, rec­og­nized Ori­en­tal­ist and Kalachakra Tantra expert Jean Mar­ques-Riv­iere (in his absence con­vict­ed and giv­en the death sen­tence for turn­ing Jews over to the Gestapo in France).” The Aum Shin­rikyo guru Shoko Asa­hara was also a friend of the Dalai Lama and was influ­enced by the ide­ol­o­gy of the Kalachakra Tantra. (For more about the Aum Shin­rikyo cult, includ­ing the influ­ence of Hitler on the Dalai Lama’s friend Shoko Asa­hara, see FTRs 35 [26] and 69 [27].)

An inter­view with Vic­tor and Vic­to­ria Tri­mon­di by James C. Stephens; 9/11/2003 [24]

“TRIMONDI: In our his­tor­i­cal essay Hitler — Bud­dha — Krish­na — an Unholy Alliance from the Third Reich to Today, we show that the war­like and racist ideas of Hein­rich Himm­ler of the SS and of oth­er well known Neo-fas­cists have been fun­da­men­tal­ly inspired by ele­ments of dif­fer­ent Asian reli­gions, such as Vedism, Bud­dhism, Lamaism and that promi­nent Ger­man Zen Teach­ers-Dur­ck­heim & Her­rigel have been con­vinced Nazis.

It’s real­ly shock­ing, in the ‘SS-Ahnenerbe’, which was the aca­d­e­m­ic brain trust of the SS, that its Chief Hein­rich Himm­ler, was open­ly engaged in ongo­ing dis­cus­sions with the most dis­tin­guished Ger­man Ori­en­tal­ists of his time in the con­struc­tion of a new Indo- Ari­an Nazi-Reli­gion. After WW II, this dis­cus­sion was con­tin­ued by promi­nent neo- fas­cist ide­o­logues. Both of our books have stim­u­lat­ed a great dis­cus­sion about the ide­o­log­i­cal sources of reli­gious fun­da­men­tal­ism and about the clash of civ­i­liza­tions. . . .

TRIMONDI: It is a fact that the Shamb­ha­la War Ide­ol­o­gy of the Kalachakra-Tantra has led to aggres­sive behav­ior, mega­lo­ma­ni­a­cal visions and con­spir­a­cy the­o­ries both in the his­to­ry of the Asia as well as in that of reli­gious fas­cism and neo-fas­cism. Already in the SS-Ahnenerbe, where Hein­rich Himm­ler’s Nazi-Reli­gion was born, there was an inter­est in the con­tents of the Kalachakra-Tantra.

The influ­en­tial fas­cist and cul­tur­al philoso­pher Julius Evola saw in the myth­ic world of Shamb­ha­la an eso­teric cen­ter of a sacred war­rior race. This vision is today still firm­ly anchored in the reli­gious ideas of the inter­na­tion­al far-right move­ment. That alone makes it nec­es­sary for the Dalai Lama to dis­tance him­self clear­ly from the war-mon­ger­ing Shamb­ha­la Myth.

Instead of this he has cul­ti­vat­ed friend­ly con­tacts with peo­ple such as the ex-SS men Bruno Beger (con­vict­ed as help­ing to mur­der more than 86 Jews) and Hein­rich Har­rer, author of Sev­en Years in Tibet (a chron­i­cle of his expe­ri­ence with the Dalai Lama over sev­en years pri­or to his exile to India). The Home­page of the Gov­ern­ment of Tibet in Exile [28] shows the XIV Dalai Lama between Bruno Beger on his right and Hein­rich Har­rer on his left. Beger has been a mem­ber of the famous SS-Tibet Expe­di­tion orga­nized by the SS in 1938/1939 whose pri­ma­ry goal was to find traces of an ancient, lost indo-Ari­an reli­gion in the Himalayas.

Some occult lead­ers in the SS were con­vinced that Tibetan Lamas are the key hold­ers of these Indo- Ari­an Mys­ter­ies. Beger is high­ly respect­ed by the Gov­ern­ment of Tibet in Exile as a chief wit­ness for the polit­i­cal inde­pen­dence of the coun­try in the 30’s and 40’s of the last cen­tu­ry. [Empha­sis added.] Near­ly unknown until now are the con­tacts of the Dalai Lama with the French SS- col­lab­o­ra­tor, con­vinced anti-Semi­te, rec­og­nized Ori­en­tal­ist and Kalachakra Tantra expert Jean Mar­ques-Riv­iere (in his absence con­vict­ed and giv­en the death sen­tence for turn­ing Jews over to the Gestapo in France).

The founder of an eso­teric Hitler move­ment, the ex-Chilean diplo­mat Miguel Ser­ra­no (pro­mot­er of an extreme­ly racist SS-mys­ti­cism, which is based on Tantric prac­tices and on the idea of the Shamb­ha­la War­riors) met the Dalai Lama four times. Well known became his rela­tion­ship with the Japan­ese ter­ror­ist, Shoko Asa­hara, whom he described, even after the Tokyo sarin gas attacks, as his ‘friend, albeit an imper­fect one’. Only lat­er he did dis­tance him­self from the Guru. Asa­hara’s Dooms­day Phi­los­o­phy was main­ly influ­enced by the Shamb­ha­la Ide­ol­o­gy and by Tibetan Tantrism.”

4. Net­work­ing with Isa Yusuf Alptekin at the Ban­dung (Indone­sia) con­fer­ence was Ruzi (or “Ruzy”) Nazar, an Uzbek nation­al who fought in var­i­ous Third Reich mil­i­tary for­ma­tions, includ­ing the SS Dirlewanger Brigade. After the war, Nazar was a CIA oper­a­tive net­work­ing with the Nation­al Action Par­ty (or Nation­al Move­ment Par­ty) of Alparslan Turkes.

Nazar rep­re­sent­ed the Anti-Bol­she­vik Bloc of Nations at the 1984 WACL con­fer­ence in Dal­las.

A Dark Path to Free­dom: Ruzi Nazar from the Red Army to the CIA by Enver Altayli; Trans­lat­ed by David Bar­chard; Trans­la­tion copy­right 2017 by David Bar­chard; Hurst and Com­pa­ny [Lon­don] HC; ISBN 978 1849 0429 78; pp. 188–189. [17]

. . . . He did not have the right to speak at the con­fer­ence, but he was able to orga­nize a press con­fer­ence for the jour­nal­ists who had come from the four cor­ners of the world to cov­er the event, includ­ing around thir­ty from the USSR. Ruzi told the press office of his plans, and they informed  jour­nal­ists and del­e­gates of the press con­fer­ence to be giv­en by Ruzi Nazar, observ­er del­e­gate from Turkestan and a for­mer offi­cer in the Turkestan Legion. [The Turkestan Legion was a Third Reich mil­i­tary formation–D.E.] Mean­while, the chair­man of the Ban­dung branch of the Masyu­mi Par­ty told Ruzi just half an hour before the press con­fer­ee was due to begin that a North Cau­casian guest called Sey­it Shamil had arrived from Turkey. He had been unable to take part in the con­fer­ence, as he had not been invit­ed. Ruzi told the chair­man that he should bring this guest straight in and seat him beside him­self at the press con­fer­ence. Sey­it Shamil was the grand­son of Sheikh Shamil, the nation­al hero of the North Cau­ca­sus, who had fought for its inde­pen­dence against the armies of the tsars. Sey­it Shamil had want­ed to come to Ban­dung along with the Uyghur leader Isa Yusuf Alptekin, the for­mer prime min­is­ter of the Repub­lic of East Turkestan, which had been bro­ken up by Chi­nese armies in 1949. But Shamil was the only one to obtain a visa, as the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment had put pres­sure on the Indone­sian gov­ern­ment to stop Alptekin being giv­en one. They had gone togeth­er from Istan­bul to Karachi, where Alptekin had again applied for a visa and been turned down. The Uyghur leader decid­ed to wait in Pak­istan for Shamil to return. . . .