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For The Record  

FTR#‘s 1172 & 1173 The Missing Chapter, Parts 2 and 3.

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FTR #1172 This pro­gram was record­ed in one, 60-minute seg­ment.

FTR#1173 This pro­gram was record­ed in one, 60-minute seg­ment.

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Intro­duc­tion: In numer­ous pro­grams and lec­tures, we have dis­cussed the impor­tant, dev­as­tat­ing­ly suc­ces­sive­ly mind con­trol pro­grams engaged in by the mil­i­tary and CIA. Those pro­grams were devel­oped in reac­tion to downed Amer­i­can air­men who–after captivity–gave tes­ti­mo­ny that they had been involved in bio­log­i­cal war­fare attacks against Chi­na and North Korea dur­ing the war.

A superb book about Unit 731–the Japan­ese bio­log­i­cal war­fare unit dur­ing World War II–had a chap­ter in the British edi­tion that was omit­ted in the Amer­i­can edi­tion. (Sad­ly, the books is out of print, although both the British and Amer­i­can edi­tions are avail­able through used-book ser­vices. Mr. Emory hearti­ly encour­ages lis­ten­ers to obtain the book. Even the Amer­i­can edition–missing this key chapter–is worth­while. Hope­ful­ly, a pub­lish­er will obtain the rights to the book and re-issue it. If so, we will enthu­si­as­ti­cal­ly pro­mote the work.)

The chap­ter in the UK edi­tion chron­i­cles the inves­ti­ga­tion into the alle­ga­tions of Amer­i­can BW use dur­ing the Kore­an War, includ­ing cir­cum­stan­tial evi­dence that Unit 731 vet­er­ans and method­ol­o­gy may well have been used in the alleged cam­paign. That chap­ter is alto­geth­er objec­tive, avoid­ing ide­o­log­i­cal bias toward either side in the con­flict.

Because of that, we found the omis­sion of this chap­ter from the U.S. edi­tion to be sig­nif­i­cant. As the bril­liant Peter Dale Scott not­ed: “The cov­er-up obvi­ates the con­spir­a­cy.” It is a mat­ter of pub­lic record that Unit 731’s files were incor­po­rat­ed into the U.S. bio­log­i­cal war­fare pro­gram, and vet­er­ans of the Unit bequeathed their exper­tise to the Amer­i­cans in exchange from immu­ni­ty from pros­e­cu­tion for war crimes.

It is a mat­ter of pub­lic record that Unit 731’s files were incor­po­rat­ed into the U.S. bio­log­i­cal war­fare pro­gram, and vet­er­ans of the Unit bequeathed their exper­tise to the Amer­i­cans in exchange from immu­ni­ty from pros­e­cu­tion for war crimes.

Key Points of Dis­cus­sion and Analy­sis

  1. FTR#1172 begins with review of the sci­en­tif­ic cre­den­tials of the Inter­na­tion­al Sci­en­tif­ic Com­mis­sion inves­ti­gat­ing the alle­ga­tions of bio­log­i­cal war­fare. ” . . . . Dr. Andrea Andreen, direc­tor of the Cen­tral Lab­o­ra­to­ry of the Hos­pi­tals Board of the City of Stock­holm; Jean Mal­terre, Inge­nieur-Agri­cole, direc­tor of the Cen­tral Lab­o­ra­to­ry of Ani­mal Phys­i­ol­o­gy, Nation­al Col­lege of Agri­cul­ture, Grignon, France; Dr. Oliviero Oli­vo, pro­fes­sor of Human Anato­my in the Fac­ul­ty of Med­i­cine of the Uni­ver­si­ty of Bologna, Italy; Dr. Samuel Pes­soa, pro­fes­sor of Par­a­sitol­ogy at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Sao Pao­lo and for­mer­ly direc­tor of pub­lic Health for the State of Sao Pao­lo; Dr. Nico­lai Zhukov-Verezh­nikov, pro­fes­sor of Bac­te­ri­ol­o­gy at, and Vice-Pres­i­dent of, the Sovi­et Acad­e­my of Med­i­cine and for­mer­ly chief med­ical expert at the Khabarovsk tri­al, and final­ly, Dr. Joseph Need­ham, FRS, Sir William Dunn Read­er in Bio­chem­istry, Cam­bridge Uni­ver­si­ty, for­mer­ly sci­en­tif­ic coun­sel­lor, Her Bri­tan­nic Majesty’s Embassy, Chungk­ing and lat­er direc­tor of the Depart­ment of Nat­ur­al Sci­ences, UNESCO, (He became in 1966, the Mas­ter of Gonville and Caius Col­lege, Cam­bridge, and is cur­rent­ly writ­ing a his­to­ry of sci­ence and civ­i­liza­tion in Chi­na.) . . . .”
  2. The sec­ond pro­gram then takes up the find­ings of the ISC, resum­ing from the where we left off in FTR #1172. Note that Dr. Wen-kwei Chen had inves­ti­gat­ed some of Unit 731’s plague attacks dur­ing the Sec­ond World War, work­ing for the Nation­al­ist Chi­nese.
  3. Pre­sent­ing the sci­en­tif­ic evi­dence exam­ined by the ISC, the authors note that numer­ous anom­alies in epi­demics and asso­ci­at­ed insect and mam­malian vec­tors led the sci­en­tists to con­clude that BW was the source of the patholo­gies.
  4. Appar­ent insect vec­tors appeared in unsea­son­ably cold envi­ron­ments, some as cold as -10 degrees centi­grade.
  5. Appar­ent mam­malian vec­tors were also anom­alous, with ful­ly devel­oped adults appear­ing exclu­sive­ly, when imma­ture rodents would be expect­ed.
  6. By the same token, appar­ent insect vec­tors were anom­alous, with ful­ly devel­oped adults, many ready to lay eggs appeared.
  7. Many of the insect and mam­malian vec­tors appeared at times of the year that were not con­sis­tent with nat­ur­al events.
  8. Infec­tious microor­gan­isms were also anom­alous, with types of bac­te­ria appear­ing at times of the year and areas not con­sis­tent with observed nat­ur­al pat­terns.
  9. Species of infec­tious organ­isms were anom­alous, as well, with some nev­er hav­ing occurred in the areas that were affect­ed.

The intro­duc­tion of FTR#1173 con­sists of read­ing and analy­sis of Tom O’Neil­l’s pre­sen­ta­tion of the career of one of the CIA’s most impor­tant MK-Ultra mind con­trol oper­a­tives, which occurred in the imme­di­ate after­math of the Kore­an War–1954.

Key Points of Dis­cus­sion and analy­sis include:

  1. Shaver’s unusu­al behav­ior and demeanor at the ini­tial scene of the crime: ” . . . . He was shirt­less, cov­ered in blood and scratch­es. Mak­ing no attempt to escape, he let the search par­ty walk him to the edge of the high­way. Bystanders described him as ‘dazed’ and ‘trance-like’ . . . .”
  2. Shaver’s appar­ent lack of aware­ness of the imme­di­ate cir­cum­stances of the crime: ” ‘What’s going on here?’ he asked. He did­n’t seem drunk, but he could­n’t say where he was, how he’d got­ten there, or whose blood was all over him. Mean­while, the search par­ty found Hor­ton’s body in the grav­el pit. Her neck was bro­ken, her legs had been torn open, and she’s been raped. . . .”
  3. ” . . . . Around four that morn­ing, an Air Force mar­shal ques­tioned Shaver and two doc­tors exam­ined him, agree­ing he was­n’t drunk. One lat­er tes­ti­fied that he ‘was not nor­mal . . . . he was very com­posed out­side, which I did not expect him to be under these cir­cum­stances.’ . . .”
  4. Shaver did­n’t rec­og­nize his own wife when she came to vis­it him. ” . . . . When his wife came to vis­it, he did­n’t rec­og­nize her. . . .”
  5. Ini­tial­ly, he believed some­one else com­mit­ted the crime. ” . . . . He gave his first state­ment at 10:30 a.m., adamant that anoth­er man was respon­si­ble: he could sum­mon an image of a stranger with blond hair and tat­toos. . . .”
  6. Even­tu­al­ly, he signed a state­ment tak­ing respon­si­bil­i­ty: ” . . . . After the Air Force mar­shal returned to the jail­house, how­ev­er, Shaver signed a sec­ond state­ment tak­ing full respon­si­bil­i­ty. Though he still did­n’t remem­ber any­thing, he rea­soned that he must have done it. . . .”
  7. Enter Jol­ly West: ” . . . . Two months lat­er, in Sep­tem­ber, Shaver’s mem­o­ries still had­n’t returned. The base hos­pi­tal com­man­der told Jol­ly West to per­form an eval­u­a­tion: was he legal­ly sane at the time of the mur­der? Shaver spent the next two weeks under West­’s super­vi­sion . . . While Shaver was under–with West inject­ing more truth serum to ‘deep­en the trance’–Shaver recalled the events of that night. He con­fessed to killing Hor­ton. . . .”
  8. West was a defense wit­ness who, instead, appears to have aid­ed the pros­e­cu­tion: ” . . . . At the tri­al, West argued that Shaver’s truth-serum con­fes­sion was more valid than any oth­er. And West was tes­ti­fy­ing for the defense . . . .”
  9. Shaver’s behav­ior at the tri­al is fur­ther sug­ges­tive of mind con­trol: ” . . . . One news­pa­per account said he ‘sat through the stren­u­ous ses­sions like a man in a trance,’ say­ing noth­ing, nev­er ris­ing to stretch or smoke, though he was a known chain-smok­er. ‘Some believe it’s an act,’ the paper said, ‘oth­ers believe his demeanor is real. . . .”
  10. Shaver’s med­ical records at Lack­land Air Force base had van­ished. ” . . . . But, curi­ous­ly, all the records for patients in 1954 had been main­tained, with one excep­tion: the file for last names begin­ning with ‘Sa’ through ‘St’ had van­ished. . . .”
  11. West posed lead­ing ques­tions to Shaver, who denied hav­ing ever tak­en the vic­tim’s clothes off. ” . . . . West had used lead­ing ques­tions to walk the entranced Shaver through the crime. ‘Tell me about when you took your clothes off, Jim­my,’ he said. And try­ing to prove that Shaver had repressed mem­o­ries: ‘Jim­my, do you remem­ber when some­thing like this hap­pened before?’ Or: ‘After you took her clothes off, what did you do?’ ‘I nev­er did take her clothes off,’ Shaver said. . . .”
  12. The inter­view was divid­ed into thirds, the mid­dle third of which was not record­ed! ” . . . . The inter­view [with Shaver] was divid­ed into thirds. The mid­dle third, for some rea­son, was­n’t record­ed. When the record picked up, the man­u­script said, ‘Shaver is cry­ing. He has been con­front­ed with all the facts repeat­ed­ly.’ . . .”

1. FTR#1172 begins with pre­sen­ta­tion of the sci­en­tif­ic cre­den­tials of the Inter­na­tion­al Sci­en­tif­ic Com­mis­sion inves­ti­gat­ing the alle­ga­tions of bio­log­i­cal war­fare.

Unit 731: The Japan­ese Army’s Secret of Secrets by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; Hod­der & Stoughton [HC]; Copy­right 1989 by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; ISBN 0–340-39463–3; p. 240.

. . . . One source of infor­ma­tion, the Report of the Inter­na­tion­al Sci­en­tif­ic Com­mis­sion for the Facts Con­cern­ing Bac­te­r­i­al War­fare in Korea and Chi­na, which was pre­pared with Chi­nese and North Kore­an assis­tance, is gen­er­al­ly accept­ed today as being of high qual­i­ty . . . Dr. Andrea Andreen, direc­tor of the Cen­tral Lab­o­ra­to­ry of the Hos­pi­tals Board of the City of Stock­holm; Jean Mal­terre, Inge­nieur-Agri­cole, direc­tor of the Cen­tral Lab­o­ra­to­ry of Ani­mal Phys­i­ol­o­gy, Nation­al Col­lege of Agri­cul­ture, Grignon, France; Dr. Oliviero Oli­vo, pro­fes­sor of Human Anato­my in the Fac­ul­ty of Med­i­cine of the Uni­ver­si­ty of Bologna, Italy; Dr. Samuel Pes­soa, pro­fes­sor of Par­a­sitol­ogy at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Sao Pao­lo and for­mer­ly direc­tor of pub­lic Health for the State of Sao Pao­lo; Dr. Nico­lai Zhukov-Verezh­nikov, pro­fes­sor of Bac­te­ri­ol­o­gy at, and Vice-Pres­i­dent of, the Sovi­et Acad­e­my of Med­i­cine and for­mer­ly chief med­ical expert at the Khabarovsk tri­al, and final­ly, Dr. Joseph Need­ham, FRS, Sir William Dunn Read­er in Bio­chem­istry, Cam­bridge Uni­ver­si­ty, for­mer­ly sci­en­tif­ic coun­sel­lor, Her Bri­tan­nic Majesty’s Embassy, Chungk­ing and lat­er direc­tor of the Depart­ment of Nat­ur­al Sci­ences, UNESCO, (He became in 1966, the Mas­ter of Gonville and Caius Col­lege, Cam­bridge, and is cur­rent­ly writ­ing a his­to­ry of sci­ence and civ­i­liza­tion in Chi­na.) . . . .

2.  Pre­sent­ing the sci­en­tif­ic evi­dence exam­ined by the ISC, the authors note that numer­ous anom­alies in epi­demics and asso­ci­at­ed insect and mam­malian vec­tors led the sci­en­tists to con­clude that BW was the source of the patholo­gies.

  1. Appar­ent insect vec­tors appeared in unsea­son­ably cold envi­ron­ments, some as cold as -10 degrees centi­grade.
  2. Appar­ent mam­malian vec­tors were also anom­alous, with ful­ly devel­oped adults appear­ing exclu­sive­ly, when imma­ture rodents would be expect­ed.
  3. By the same token, appar­ent insect vec­tors were anom­alous, with ful­ly devel­oped adults, many ready to lay eggs appeared.
  4. Many of the insect and mam­malian vec­tors appeared at times of the year that were not con­sis­tent with nat­ur­al events.
  5. Infec­tious microor­gan­isms were also anom­alous, with types of bac­te­ria appear­ing at times of the year and areas not con­sis­tent with observed nat­ur­al pat­terns.
  6. Species of infec­tious organ­isms were anom­alous, as well, with some nev­er hav­ing occurred in the areas that were affect­ed.
  7. The sec­ond pro­gram con­cludes with the pre­sen­ta­tion giv­en by Dr. Joseph Need­ham of the ISC and Cana­di­an Chris­t­ian preach­er Jim Endi­cott, who had not only worked for Chi­ang Kai-shek’s forces dur­ing World War II, but U.S. secret mil­i­tary intel­li­gence. They rein­forced the find­ings of the ISC.

Unit 731: The Japan­ese Army’s Secret of Secrets by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; Hod­der & Stoughton [HC]; Copy­right 1989 by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; ISBN 0–340-39463–3; pp. 240–247.

3. The intro­duc­tion of FTR#1173 con­sists of read­ing and analy­sis of Tom O’Neil­l’s pre­sen­ta­tion of the career of one of the CIA’s most impor­tant MK-Ultra mind con­trol oper­a­tives, which occurred in the imme­di­ate after­math of the Kore­an War–1954.

Louis Joly­on West was Jack Ruby’s psy­chi­a­trist, and pre­sent­ed the unten­able hypoth­e­sis that Ruby killed Oswald because he had a brief psy­chomo­tor epilep­tic event in the base­ment of the Dal­las jail. In fact, the evi­dence sug­gests strong­ly that West had helped to erase Ruby’s mem­o­ry of hav­ing killed Oswald.

The broad­cast sets forth the mur­der of Chere Jo Hor­ton, a three-year-old girl whose muti­la­tion, rape and mur­der were pinned on 29-year-old Jim­mie Shaver.

An obvi­ous vic­tim of mind con­trol, appar­ent­ly imple­ment­ed in con­sid­er­able mea­sure by Louis Joly­on West, Shaver was pro­grammed to take respon­si­bil­i­ty for the killing, despite enor­mous con­tra­dic­tions in the evi­dence.

Key Points of Dis­cus­sion and analy­sis include:

  1. Shaver’s unusu­al behav­ior and demeanor at the ini­tial scene of the crime: ” . . . . He was shirt­less, cov­ered in blood and scratch­es. Mak­ing no attempt to escape, he let the search par­ty walk him to the edge of the high­way. Bystanders described him as ‘dazed’ and ‘trance-like’ . . . .”
  2. Shaver’s appar­ent lack of aware­ness of the imme­di­ate cir­cum­stances of the crime: ” ‘What’s going on here?’ he asked. He did­n’t seem drunk, but he could­n’t say where he was, how he’d got­ten there, or whose blood was all over him. Mean­while, the search par­ty found Hor­ton’s body in the grav­el pit. Her neck was bro­ken, her legs had been torn open, and she’s been raped. . . .”
  3. ” . . . . Around four that morn­ing, an Air Force mar­shal ques­tioned Shaver and two doc­tors exam­ined him, agree­ing he was­n’t drunk. One lat­er tes­ti­fied that he ‘was not nor­mal . . . . he was very com­posed out­side, which I did not expect him to be under these cir­cum­stances.’ . . .”
  4. Shaver did­n’t rec­og­nize his own wife when she came to vis­it him. ” . . . . When his wife came to vis­it, he did­n’t rec­og­nize her. . . .”
  5. Ini­tial­ly, he believed some­one else com­mit­ted the crime. ” . . . . He gave his first state­ment at 10:30 a.m., adamant that anoth­er man was respon­si­ble: he could sum­mon an image of a stranger with blond hair and tat­toos. . . .”
  6. Even­tu­al­ly, he signed a state­ment tak­ing respon­si­bil­i­ty: ” . . . . After the Air Force mar­shal returned to the jail­house, how­ev­er, Shaver signed a sec­ond state­ment tak­ing full respon­si­bil­i­ty. Though he still did­n’t remem­ber any­thing, he rea­soned that he must have done it. . . .”
  7. Enter Jol­ly West: ” . . . . Two months lat­er, in Sep­tem­ber, Shaver’s mem­o­ries still had­n’t returned. The base hos­pi­tal com­man­der told Jol­ly West to per­form an eval­u­a­tion: was he legal­ly sane at the time of the mur­der? Shaver spent the next two weeks under West­’s super­vi­sion . . . While Shaver was under–with West inject­ing more truth serum to ‘deep­en the trance’–Shaver recalled the events of that night. He con­fessed to killing Hor­ton. . . .”
  8. West was a defense wit­ness who, instead, appears to have aid­ed the pros­e­cu­tion: ” . . . . At the tri­al, West argued that Shaver’s truth-serum con­fes­sion was more valid than any oth­er. And West was tes­ti­fy­ing for the defense . . . .”
  9. Shaver’s behav­ior at the tri­al is fur­ther sug­ges­tive of mind con­trol: ” . . . . One news­pa­per account said he ‘sat through the stren­u­ous ses­sions like a man in a trance,’ say­ing noth­ing, nev­er ris­ing to stretch or smoke, though he was a known chain-smok­er. ‘Some believe it’s an act,’ the paper said, ‘oth­ers believe his demeanor is real. . . .”
  10. Shaver’s med­ical records at Lack­land Air Force base had van­ished. ” . . . . But, curi­ous­ly, all the records for patients in 1954 had been main­tained, with one excep­tion: the file for last names begin­ning with ‘Sa’ through ‘St’ had van­ished. . . .”
  11. West posed lead­ing ques­tions to Shaver, who denied hav­ing ever tak­en the vic­tim’s clothes off. ” . . . . West had used lead­ing ques­tions to walk the entranced Shaver through the crime. ‘Tell me about when you took your clothes off, Jim­my,’ he said. And try­ing to prove that Shaver had repressed mem­o­ries: ‘Jim­my, do you remem­ber when some­thing like this hap­pened before?’ Or: ‘After you took her clothes off, what did you do?’ ‘I nev­er did take her clothes off,’ Shaver said. . . .”
  12. The inter­view was divid­ed into thirds, the mid­dle third of which was not record­ed! ” . . . . The inter­view [with Shaver] was divid­ed into thirds. The mid­dle third, for some rea­son, was­n’t record­ed. When the record picked up, the man­u­script said, ‘Shaver is cry­ing. He has been con­front­ed with all the facts repeat­ed­ly.’ . . .”

Chaos: Charles Man­son, the CIA, and the Secret His­to­ry of the Six­ties by Tom O’Neill; Lit­tle, Brown and Com­pa­ny [HC]; Copy­right 2019 by Tom O’Neill; 978–0‑316–47755‑0; pp.226–232; pp.370–374.

5. The sec­ond pro­gram then takes up the find­ings of the ISC, resum­ing from the where we left off in FTR #1172. Note that Dr. Wen-kwei Chen had inves­ti­gat­ed some of Unit 731’s plague attacks dur­ing the Sec­ond World War, work­ing for the Nation­al­ist Chi­nese.

Unit 731: The Japan­ese Army’s Secret of Secrets by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; Hod­der & Stoughton [HC]; Copy­right 1989 by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; ISBN 0–340-39463–3; pp. 247.

. . . . In P’yongyang the ISC met one of their most inter­est­ing wit­ness­es, Chi­nese plague spe­cial­ist Dr. Wen-kwei Chen. Chen, as we have seen, was the expert sent by the Nation­al­ist Chi­nese dur­ing the Sec­ond World War to inves­ti­gate ethe out­break of plague that had bro­ken out in Changteh in Novem­ber 1941 fol­low­ing Unit 731’s plague flea air raid. Since then, under the Com­mu­nist regime, Chen ha become Pres­i­dent of the South-West Branch of the Chi­nese Med­ical Asso­ci­a­tion, and was cur­rent­ly sec­ond­ed to the Min­istry of Health and then Epi­dem­ic Pre­ven­tion Ser­vice of Korea to help con­tain the numer­ous alleged out­breaks of plague dur­ing the Kore­an War. He out­lined from per­son­al expe­ri­ence the his­to­ry of the Japan­ese BW raids dur­ing the Pacif­ic War, and added that the tech­niques cur­rent­ly being used were remark­ably sim­i­lar, although on a larg­er scale.

Chen stat­ed that the same plague flea tech­nique had been con­firmed in Korea and that the “results attained today gave me much sat­is­fac­tion, because they explain the rea­son why the Amer­i­cans delib­er­ate­ly pro­tect­ed the Japan­ese bac­te­ri­o­log­i­cal war crim­i­nals.”

Since the begin­ning of 1952 (and even before) the Chi­nese and their North Kore­an allies alleged that numer­ous iso­lat­ed foci of plague had appeared, always asso­ci­at­ed with the sud­den appear­ance of Amer­i­can planes. In ear­ly all the inci­dents which had received study, plague bac­te­ria had been found on the fleas. How­ev­er, the vari­ety of flea dis­cov­ered was not the rat flea, the most com­mon car­ri­er of the dis­ease in nature, but human fleas (Pulex irri­tans). The Com­mis­sion obtained infor­ma­tion that for as long as the past five cen­turies there had been no record­ed out­break of plague in Korea, and that the near­est endem­ic cen­tres were 300 miles away in Manchuria or 1.000 miles to the south in China’s Fukien Province. More­over, February—the date of the first plague incident—was no less than three months ear­ly for the nor­mal appear­ance of human plague in sim­i­lar cli­mates to North Korea.

The ISC inves­ti­gat­ed two plague inci­dents in Korea. At Kang-Sou towards the mid­dle of March a farmer found numer­ous fleas float­ing on the sur­face of water in a jar near his well. A plane had cir­cled over his vil­lage the pre­vi­ous night. The man died three days lat­er of bubon­ic plague. The fleas were found upon exam­i­na­tion to b infect­ed with plague bac­te­ria. Prompt san­i­tary mea­sures had pre­vent­ed fur­ther cas­es. On July 31st, the ISC vis­it­ed the lab­o­ra­to­ries of the Kore­an epi­dem­ic Pre­ven­tion Ser­vice near P’yongyang, and were told by Dr. Chen that the strains iso­lat­ed from the Kang-Sou fleas and tis­sues from the vic­tim were of a par­tic­u­lar­ly vir­u­lent vari­ety. No more than 10–20 micro-organ­isms (cal­cu­lat­ed by dilu­tions) had been found suf­fi­cient to kill a guinea pig with cer­tain­ty in five days. Human cas­es, like that of the present vic­tim, had suc­cumbed rapid­ly some­times with­in twen­ty-four hours, with­out buboes.

In the sec­ond case, Chi­nese vol­un­teers in Korea had found mass­es of fleas on a bare hill­side near Hoi-Yang. Six hours ear­li­er an Amer­i­can plane had cir­cled low over the region for about ten min­utes with­out straf­ing or bomb­ing. The fleas were again dis­cov­ered to be human fleas, and infect­ed with plague.

The next course of action which the ISC took was per­haps in ret­ro­spect a mis­take. It was cer­tain­ly great­ly to reduce the “sci­en­tif­ic” accept­abil­i­ty of its report in the West. On August 3rd and 4th, the Com­mis­sion accept­ed an invi­ta­tion to vis­it a POW camp to inter­view cap­tured Amer­i­can air­men who alleged­ly had con­fessed that Amer­i­ca was using BW. . . .

6. The sec­ond pro­gram con­cludes with the pre­sen­ta­tion giv­en by Dr. Joseph Need­ham of the ISC and Cana­di­an Chris­t­ian preach­er Jim Endi­cott, who had not only worked for Chi­ang Kai-shek’s forces dur­ing World War II, but U.S. secret mil­i­tary intel­li­gence.

They rein­forced the find­ings of the ISC.

Unit 731: The Japan­ese Army’s Secret of Secrets by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; Hod­der & Stoughton [HC]; Copy­right 1989 by Peter Williams and David Wal­lace; ISBN 0–340-39463–3; pp. 249–257.

. . . . In 1952 [Joseph Need­ham says], when the ISC was being formed, my prin­ci­pal moti­va­tion was to go to the aid of the Chi­nese bac­te­ri­ol­o­gists and zool­o­gists in their need, many of whom I had known well dur­ing the Sec­ond World War. I think that all the evi­dence shows that BW, on an exper­i­men­tal scale and using unusu­al vec­tors, was engaged in dur­ing the Kore­an War. Of course, it is entire­ly true that the mem­bers of the Com­mis­sion nev­er actu­al­ly saw any inci­dent. What we did see were spec­i­mens of the con­tain­ers that had been used and of the vec­tors, as well as vic­tims of the attacks. . . . I think the Amer­i­cans just want­ed to see what degree of suc­cess could be obtained with the essen­tial­ly Japan­ese meth­ods. My judg­ment was nev­er based on any­thing which the downed air­men had said, but rather entire­ly on the cir­cum­stan­tial evi­dence. . . . 

. . . . In Feb­ru­ary 1952, Cana­di­an Chris­t­ian preach­er and peace cam­paign­er Jim Endi­cott and his wife were also invit­ed by the Chi­nese Com­mit­tee for World Peace to inves­ti­gate the Koran BW alle­ga­tions. . . .Endi­cott was a well known fig­ure in the coun­try. . . . he had been relief work­er dur­ing Japan­ese bomb­ing attacks on Chungk­ing dur­ing 1939–1940, a polit­i­cal advis­er to Chi­ang Kai-shek’s New Life Move­ment and, until 1946, a mem­ber of US secret mil­i­tary intel­li­gence in Chi­na in 1944–5, Endi­cott had become acquaint­ed with, and gained the mutu­al respect of, many Chi­nese Com­mu­nists, friend­ships which sur­vived the Com­mu­nists’ takeover and recon­struc­tion. . . .

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