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History of Lyme Disease as a Bioweapon

Lyme is a Biowar­fare Issue


The world of Lyme dis­ease med­i­cine is split into two camps – the US gov­ern­ment-backed “Steere camp”, which main­tains the dis­ease is hard-to-catch, eas­i­ly cured, and rarely caus­es chron­ic neu­ro­log­i­cal dam­age, and the “ILADS camp”, which main­tains the oppo­site. The Steere camp is intri­cate­ly bound up with the Amer­i­can biowar­fare estab­lish­ment, as well as with giant insur­ance and oth­er cor­po­rate inter­ests with a stake in the issue. The ILADS doc­tors lack such con­nec­tions, but are sup­port­ed instead by tens of thou­sands of patients ral­ly­ing behind them.

Because the Steere camp has been mas­sive­ly fund­ed and pro­mot­ed by fed­er­al agen­cies, its view has dom­i­nat­ed Lyme med­i­cine not just in the US, but across much of the world. The result has been suf­fer­ing on a grand scale. Below is a con­cise his­to­ry of the mil­i­tary aspects of this cov­er-up.

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Weapons of Mass Infec­tion
The devel­op­ment of bio­log­i­cal weapons has nev­er been con­fined to dic­ta­tor­ships or “rogue” regimes. Dur­ing the Sec­ond World War Amer­i­ca, Britain and Cana­da col­lab­o­rat­ed close­ly on devel­op­ing offen­sive bioweapons, and offen­sive research con­tin­ued as an open­ly acknowl­edged activ­i­ty of the US sci­en­tif­ic estab­lish­ment dur­ing the Cold War. Only in 1972 was this work banned by inter­na­tion­al treaty. Mean­while the Mary­land-based labs at Fort Det­rick, for exam­ple, had pro­duced mil­lions of mos­qui­toes, ticks and oth­er vec­tors for the pur­pose of spread­ing lethal germs.[i] The island of Gru­inard, off the coast of Scot­land, was only declared hab­it­able again in 1990, near­ly fifty years after the British first con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed it dur­ing anthrax exper­i­ments. [ii]

Ticks, which vec­tor Lyme dis­ease, have been stud­ied as biowar­fare instru­ments for decades. Such well-known biowar agents as tularaemia and Q‑fever are tick-borne. The Bor­re­lia genus of bac­te­ria, which encom­pass­es the Bor­re­lia burgdor­feri species-group (to which Lyme dis­ease is attrib­uted), was stud­ied by the infa­mous WW2 Japan­ese biowar Unit 731, who car­ried out hor­rif­ic exper­i­ments on pris­on­ers in Manchuria, includ­ing dis­sec­tion of live human beings. [iii] Unit 731 also worked on a num­ber of oth­er tick-borne pathogens.

After the war, the butch­ers of Unit 731 were shield­ed from pros­e­cu­tion by the US author­i­ties, who want­ed their exper­tise for the Cold War. [iv] The US gov­ern­ment also pro­tect­ed and recruit­ed Ger­man Nazi bioweaponeers under the aegis of the top-secret Oper­a­tion Paper­clip. [v]

Bor­re­lio­sis, or infec­tion with microbes belong­ing to the bor­re­lia genus, had been dread­ed dur­ing the Sec­ond World War as a cause of the often-fatal dis­ease relaps­ing fever. The new post-war era of peni­cillin meant that many bac­te­r­i­al infec­tions could now be eas­i­ly cured. How­ev­er, bor­re­lia were known for their abil­i­ty to adopt dif­fer­ent forms under con­di­tions of stress (such as expo­sure to antibi­otics). Shed­ding their out­er wall, (which is the tar­get of peni­cillin and relat­ed drugs), they could ward off attack and con­tin­ue to exist in the body.

Lyme dis­ease is not usu­al­ly fatal, and it is some­times argued that, with rapid­ly lethal agents like small­pox and plague avail­able, an army would have no inter­est in it. How­ev­er, what is impor­tant to under­stand here is that inca­pac­i­tat­ing or “non-lethal” bioweapons are a major part of biowar­fare R&D[vi], and have been for decades. For exam­ple, dur­ing the Sec­ond World War, bru­cel­losis, chron­i­cal­ly dis­abling but not usu­al­ly fatal, was a major pre­oc­cu­pa­tion. Mil­i­tary strate­gists under­stand that dis­abling an enemy’s sol­diers can some­times cause more dam­age than killing them, as large amount of resources are then tied up in car­ing for the casu­al­ties. An effi­cient inca­pac­i­tat­ing weapon dis­persed over a civil­ian pop­u­la­tion could destroy a country’s econ­o­my and infra­struc­ture with­out fir­ing a shot. Peo­ple would either be too sick to work, or too busy look­ing after those who were.

The EIS and the “Dis­cov­ery” of Lyme
Mod­ern Lyme his­to­ry begins in 1975 when a moth­er in the town of Old Lyme, Con­necti­cut report­ed the out­break of a strange, mul­ti-sys­tem dis­ease. The town lies direct­ly oppo­site the Plum Island biowar­fare research lab where, accord­ing to for­mer Jus­tice offi­cial John Lof­tus, Nazi sci­en­tists brought to the US after WW2 may have test-dropped “poi­son ticks”. [vii] It should be not­ed that Lof­tus’ rep­u­ta­tion for gath­er­ing accu­rate, hard-hit­ting infor­ma­tion is strong – strong enough to bring down in dis­grace the for­mer Chan­cel­lor of Aus­tria and Sec­re­tary-Gen­er­al of the UN Kurt Wald­heim, after the latter’s wartime SS record was revealed.

While it’s not yet known if Plum Island exper­i­ment­ed on Lyme-caus­ing bor­re­lia, the lab’s direc­tors open­ly admit­ted to Michael Car­roll, author of a recent­ly-pub­lished book which is endorsed by two for­mer State Gov­er­nors, that they kept “tick colonies”. The “hard tick” Ambly­omma amer­i­canum, a known car­ri­er of Bor­re­lia burgdor­feri, was one of the sub­jects of the Island’s exper­i­ments. [viii]This tick is not the one most com­mon­ly asso­ci­at­ed with trans­mit­ting Bor­re­lia burgdor­feri, but it is impli­cat­ed in har­bour­ing Bor­re­lia lon­es­tari, believed to be the cause of a “Lyme-like ill­ness” in the Amer­i­can south. [ix]

Carroll’s book reveals a shock­ing dis­re­gard for safe­ty, in this lab han­dling some of the most dan­ger­ous germs on earth. Eye­wit­ness­es described how infect­ed ani­mals were kept in open-air pens. Birds swoop­ing down into the pens could have picked up and spread infect­ed ticks world­wide.

When Pol­ly Mur­ray made her now-famous call to the Con­necti­cut health depart­ment to report the strange epi­dem­ic among chil­dren and adults in her town, her ini­tial recep­tion was luke­warm. How­ev­er, some weeks lat­er, she got an unex­pect­ed call from a Dr David Sny­d­man, of the Epi­dem­ic Intel­li­gence Ser­vice (EIS), who was very inter­est­ed. He arranged for fel­low EIS offi­cer Dr Allen Steere to get involved. By the time Mrs. Mur­ray turned up for her appoint­ment at Yale, the doc­tor she had expect­ed to see had been rel­e­gat­ed to the role of an onlook­er. Allen Steere had tak­en charge – and his views were to shape the course of Lyme med­i­cine for the next thir­ty years, up till today. [x]

To under­stand the sig­nif­i­cance of all this, we need a clos­er look at the Epi­dem­ic Intel­li­gence Ser­vice, the EIS.

The EIS is an elite, qua­si-mil­i­tary unit of Infec­tious Dis­ease experts set up in the 1950’s to devel­op an offen­sive biowar­fare capa­bil­i­ty. Despite the ban­ning of offen­sive biowar in the 1970’s, the crack troops of the EIS con­tin­ue to exist, osten­si­bly for non-offen­sive research into “emerg­ing dis­ease” threats, a blan­ket phrase cov­er­ing both bioweapon attacks and nat­ur­al epi­demics at the same time. Grad­u­ates of the EIS train­ing pro­gram are sent in to occu­py strate­gic posi­tions in the US health infra­struc­ture, tak­ing lead­er­ship at fed­er­al and state health agen­cies, in acad­e­mia, indus­try and the media. The organ­i­sa­tion also extends its influ­ence abroad, train­ing offi­cers for pub­lic health agen­cies in Britain, France, the Nether­lands etc. [xi] [xii]

In fact a high pro­por­tion of Steere camp Lyme experts are involved with the EIS. Giv­en that the EIS is a small, elite force, (in 2001 the CDC revealed there were less than 2500 EIS offi­cers in exis­tence since the unit was first cre­at­ed in 1951 [xiii]), it seems incred­i­ble that so many of America’s top Infec­tious Dis­ease experts would devote their careers to what they them­selves claim is a “hard-to-catch, eas­i­ly-cured” dis­ease.

With­in a few years of Steere’s “dis­cov­ery” of Lyme dis­ease (the unique Lyme rash
, and cer­tain asso­ci­at­ed symp­toms, had been recog­nised in Europe near­ly a cen­tu­ry before), it was announced that its bac­te­r­i­al cause had been iden­ti­fied. The microbe was acci­den­tal­ly found by biowar­fare sci­en­tist Willy Burgdor­fer and was sub­se­quent­ly named for him. Burgdor­fer has cham­pi­oned the Lyme patients’ move­ment and is not sus­pect­ed of any wrong­do­ing. How­ev­er it is not impos­si­ble that he was unwit­ting­ly caught up in a chain of events that were not as ran­dom as they might have seemed.

Burgdor­fer was a Swiss sci­en­tist who had been recruit­ed by the US Pub­lic Health Ser­vice in the 1950’s. He was high­ly expe­ri­enced with both ticks and bor­re­lia, but after being told that the gov­ern­ment were not inter­est­ing in fund­ing work with the lat­ter, he switched to work with Rick­ettsia and oth­er pathogens. [xiv] In 1981, Burgdor­fer was sent a batch of deer ticks by a team study­ing Rocky Moun­tain Spot­ted Fever on the East Coast. In charge of the team was one Dr Jorge Benach. [xv] Benach sub­se­quent­ly spent much of his career as a Steere camp Lyme researcher. In 2004 he was cho­sen as recip­i­ent for a $3 mil­lion biowar­fare research grant. [xvi]

Cut­ting open some of Benach’ ticks, Burgdor­fer noticed micro­fi­lar­ia (micro­scop­ic worm young). This was a sub­ject he had been study­ing recent­ly, only these micro­fi­lar­ia were dif­fer­ent. They were excep­tion­al­ly large, large enough to be seen with the naked eye.[xvii] His curios­i­ty nat­u­ral­ly piqued, he opened up sev­er­al more ticks. There he was sur­prised to find the spi­ral-shaped germs of bor­re­lia.

Cul­ti­va­tion is nec­es­sary in order to iso­late bac­te­ria for study, so that diag­nos­tic tests, vac­cines or cures can be devel­oped. Bor­re­lia are very dif­fi­cult to grow in cul­ture. How­ev­er, by “lucky coin­ci­dence”, anoth­er sci­en­tist had recent­ly joined the lab where he worked, and had appar­ent­ly been involved in an amaz­ing break­through in this area. So nat­u­ral­ly Burgdor­fer hand­ed the infect­ed ticks over to him. [xvi­ii]

That sci­en­tist was Dr. Alan Bar­bour, an offi­cer, like Steere and Sny­d­man, of the Epi­dem­ic Intel­li­gence Ser­vice, with a back­ground in work on anthrax, one of the most ter­ri­fy­ing biowar­fare agents known. [xix]

EIS man Bar­bour there­fore became the first to iso­late the pro­to­type organ­ism on which all sub­se­quent Lyme dis­ease blood tests would be based. [xx] This is very sig­nif­i­cant, as a huge body of evi­dence [xxi] indi­cates the unre­li­a­bil­i­ty of these tests, which are rou­tine­ly used to rule out the dis­ease. Addi­tion­al­ly, all DNA detec­tion of the Lyme agent in ticks and ani­mals is ulti­mate­ly based, direct­ly or indi­rect­ly, on the genet­ic pro­file of the strain first iso­lat­ed by Bar­bour.

Short­ly after Barbour’s dis­cov­ery, oth­er species and strains of the Lyme-caus­ing bac­te­ria were iso­lat­ed, espe­cial­ly in Europe. They were all clas­si­fied based on their resem­blance to Barbour’s organ­ism, and have been grouped into a cat­e­go­ry called Bor­re­lia burgdor­feri sen­su lato or “Bbsl” for short. How­ev­er, a bor­re­lia was sub­se­quent­ly found in the south­ern US (referred to briefly above) which appears not to be a mem­ber of Barbour’s Bbsl group at all.[xxii]

The bac­te­ria, named Bor­re­lia lon­es­tari, often evades detec­tion on Lyme blood tests, is not found using DNA tests, and does not grow in Barbour’s cul­ture medi­um which is used world-wide for lab study. [xxiii]And yet, it appears to cause an ill­ness iden­ti­cal to Lyme – down to the “bulls­eye rash”, which, though not present in all patients, is con­sid­ered unique to Lyme dis­ease.

In 2005 Bar­bour, who spent much of his career study­ing the “hard-to-catch, easy-to-cure” Lyme dis­ease, was placed in charge of the mul­ti-mil­lion new biowar­fare mega-com­plex based at Uni­ver­si­ty of Cal­i­for­nia at Irvine (UCI). [xxiv] Bar­bour is joined there by his close col­league and fel­low Steerite Jonas Bunikis, author of recent papers call­ing for a restric­tive approach to Lyme diag­no­sis.

The Spread and the Spin
By the late 1980’s it was realised that Lyme dis­ease was rapid­ly spread­ing out of con­trol. Cas­es were report­ed across Amer­i­ca, Europe and Asia. Fed­er­al health agen­cies launched a major pro­pa­gan­da effort to lim­it diag­no­sis and so arti­fi­cial­ly “con­tain” the epi­dem­ic. The Nation­al Insti­tute of Health (NIH) appoint­ed biowar­fare expert Edward McSwee­gan as Lyme Pro­gram offi­cer. [xxv] Under his lead­er­ship the diag­nos­tic cri­te­ria was skewed to exclude most suf­fer­ers, espe­cial­ly those with chron­ic neu­ro­log­i­cal ill­ness. McSweegan’s suc­ces­sor at NIH, Dr Phil Bak­er, is an anthrax expert [xxvi], and has con­tin­ued his poli­cies.

The Cen­ter for Dis­ease Con­trol (CDC) is anoth­er fed­er­al body which has had a major impact on how Lyme is diag­nosed and treat­ed. Its influ­ence extends abroad, with Euro­pean pub­lic health depart­ments draw­ing up poli­cies based on CDC guide­lines. It should be remem­bered that it is the CDC which trains the Epi­dem­ic Intel­li­gence Ser­vice, and much of the lead­er­ship of CDC has tra­di­tion­al­ly been drawn from EIS ranks. There­fore it comes as no sur­prise to learn that David Den­nis, the head of vec­tor-borne dis­eases at CDC, with mas­sive influ­ence over Lyme issues, was involved with the EIS. How­ev­er, we could legit­i­mate­ly won­der why, at low­er lev­els of the CDC hier­ar­chy, EIS offi­cers — the nation’s heavy­weight infec­tious dis­ease experts — con­tin­ue to play such a major role in inves­ti­gat­ing the sup­pos­ed­ly “hard-to-catch, eas­i­ly cured” Lyme. (For exam­ple, EIS offi­cers Mar­tin Schriefer and Cap­tain Paul Mead.) [xxvii].[xxviii]

In 2001, respond­ing to the protest of thou­sands of patients that stan­dard two or three-week antibi­ot­ic cours­es were not suf­fi­cient, the NIH com­mis­sioned biowar­fare sci­en­tist Mark Klemp­n­er to study per­sis­tence of Lyme infec­tion. ILADS doc­tors had found that patients left untreat­ed in the ear­ly phase often need­ed long cours­es of antibi­otics, [xxix] some­times for years. Klemp­n­er, how­ev­er, con­clud­ed that per­sis­tent Lyme infec­tion did not exist. In 2003 Klemp­n­er was appoint­ed head of the new $1.6 bil­lion biowar­fare top-secu­ri­ty facil­i­ty being devel­oped at Boston Uni­ver­si­ty. Short­ly after, the news emerged that there had been an escape of the dead­ly bug tularaemia which was not prop­er­ly report­ed to the author­i­ties. [xxx]

In 2005 the author dis­cov­ered a doc­u­ment on the NIH web­site list­ing Lyme as one of the poten­tial bioter­ror­ism agents stud­ied in BSL‑4 (top secu­ri­ty) labs. After this was pub­li­cised, the NIH announced they had made a “mis­take”, and removed the words “Lyme dis­ease” from the page. (At the time of writ­ing, the orig­i­nal is still avail­able in cached Inter­net archives. [xxxi]) How­ev­er, at around the same time, a CDC source leaked the iden­ti­cal infor­ma­tion to the Asso­ci­at­ed Press. [xxxii] More­over, the Sci­ence Coali­tion, com­pris­ing enti­ties as pres­ti­gious as the Amer­i­can Med­ical Asso­ci­a­tion, Yale Uni­ver­si­ty, and the Amer­i­can Red Cross, main­tain a web­site which, at the time of writ­ing, also lists Lyme as a dis­ease stud­ied for its biowar­fare poten­tial. [xxxi­ii] Could these three major organ­i­sa­tions all have, co-inci­den­tal­ly, made the same “mis­take”?

In 2004 the UK gov­ern­ment denied that Lyme was a threat in Britain and told Par­lia­ment that no Lyme research had been con­duct­ed since 1999. [xxxiv] Yet the report of the offi­cial UK del­e­ga­tion to an inter­na­tion­al con­fer­ence on the pre­ven­tion of bioter­ror­ism revealed that Lyme was being stud­ied at Por­ton Down, Britain’s top biowar­fare facil­i­ty. [xxxv] Britain, and many oth­er Euro­pean coun­tries, take their lead on Lyme from a body called EUCALB, root­ed in Steere camp method­ol­o­gy. NATO has also been direct­ly involved in moves to “har­monise” Euro­pean Lyme diag­no­sis along Steerite lines

A Bug of Many Tal­ents
Lyme’s abil­i­ty to evade detec­tion on rou­tine med­ical tests, its myr­i­ad pre­sen­ta­tions which can baf­fle doc­tors by mim­ic­k­ing 100 dif­fer­ent dis­eases, its amaz­ing abil­i­ties to evade the immune sys­tem and antibi­ot­ic treat­ment, would make it an attra
ctive choice to bioweaponeers look­ing for an inca­pac­i­tat­ing agent. Lyme’s abil­i­ties as “the great imi­ta­tor” might mean that an attack could be mis­in­ter­pret­ed as sim­ply a rise in the inci­dence of dif­fer­ent, nat­u­ral­ly-occur­ring dis­eases such as autism, MS, lupus and chron­ic fatigue syn­drome (M.E.). Borrelia’s inher­ent abil­i­ty to swap out­er sur­face pro­teins, which may also vary wide­ly from strain to strain, would make the pro­duc­tion of an effec­tive vac­cine extreme­ly dif­fi­cult. (A vac­cine devel­oped for the pub­lic by the Steere camp in col­lab­o­ra­tion with Glaxo Smithk­line was pulled from the mar­ket a few years ago amid class action law­suits [xxxvi].) Final­ly, the delay before the appear­ance of the most inca­paci­ta
ting symp­toms would allow plen­ty of time for an attack­er to move away from the scene, as well as pre­vent­ing peo­ple in a con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed zone from real­is­ing they had been infect­ed and seek­ing treat­ment. Often in the ear­ly peri­od there is no rash, only vague flu-like or oth­er non-spe­cif­ic symp­toms which might be dis­missed by GP’s, or ignored by the patient.

The 2003 pro­pos­al for a rapid-detec­tion method for biowar­fare by Dr JJ Dunn of Brookhaven Nation­al Lab seems to add fur­ther grounds for sus­pi­cion. It is based on the use of two “sen­tinel” germs – plague and Lyme. [xxxvii]

In 1999 Lyme patient advo­ca­cy leader Pat Smith was amazed to find, on vis­it­ing an Army base at an old biowar test­ing ground in Mary­land, that the US Dept. of Defence has devel­oped a satel­lite-linked sys­tem that enables sol­diers to read, in real-time, off a dis­play on their helmet’s visor, infor­ma­tion about the rate of Lyme-infect­ed ticks wher­ev­er they may be on earth. Unit com­man­ders could update the data­base using state-of-the-art portable PCR machines, which test for Lyme DNA in sol­diers bit­ten by ticks. [xxxvi­ii] The use of such cut­ting-edge tech­nol­o­gy for a sup­pos­ed­ly “hard-to-catch, easy-to-cure” ill­ness seems odd, to say the least!

Lyme is often com­pli­cat­ed by the pres­ence of co-infect­ing dis­eases in the same tick, e.g. those caused by the microbes of babesia, bar­tonel­la, mycoplas­ma (believed by some researchers to be the cause of Gulf War ill­ness), ehrlichia, micro­fi­lar­ia and encephali­tis virus­es. Inves­ti­ga­tions into some of these, too, have been led by Amer­i­can biowar experts.

It could be argued that some of these Lyme researchers have been award­ed biowar-relat­ed grants sim­ply because they are Infec­tious Dis­ease spe­cial­ists, which is a nat­ur­al ter­rain from which to recruit. After all, research bud­gets for biowar have bal­looned mas­sive­ly since the anthrax attacks of 2001; there is a demand for large num­bers of per­son­nel to work on such projects.

Well, there are two things that could be said here. First, researchers who have spent much or most of their careers study­ing a “hard-to-catch, eas­i­ly-cured” dis­ease would not appear to be the best choice as recip­i­ents of this type of grant, unless the “eas­i­ly-cured” dis­ease had some rela­tion to biowar­fare. Sec­ond, while some infec­tious dis­ease spe­cial­ists began to study biowar­fare organ­isms for the first time after 2001, this is not nec­es­sar­i­ly the case with the Steerites. Klemp­n­er, for exam­ple, was study­ing ways to increase the vir­u­lence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, over 20 years ago [xxxix]; Bar­bour researched anthrax for the Army in the 1970’s. [xl]

The defeat of Sad­dam Hus­sein in the 1991 Gulf War was fol­lowed by the draw­ing up, by the UN Spe­cial Com­mis­sion (UNSCOM) of a list of microbes to be mon­i­tored in Iraq. Among them — the bor­re­lia genus in gen­er­al, and Bor­re­lia burgdor­feri in par­tic­u­lar. [xli] UNSCOM also includ­ed organ­isms such as ehrlichia and babesia, which are often present in Lyme-infect­ed ticks, and are acquired as con­cur­rent ill­ness­es when a per­son is bit­ten.

There are oth­er organ­isms on the UN list not gen­er­al­ly asso­ci­at­ed, in the pub­lic mind, with biowar­fare, and it could be argued that the UN was sim­ply being extra cau­tious by cast­ing a wide net. How­ev­er, whether Lyme bac­te­ria were present in Iraq at that time or not, they cer­tain­ly are today, and US Army man­u­als warn sol­diers to pro­tect them­selves from the dis­ease [xlii] If we are to accept the tra­di­tion­al Steerite expla­na­tion for the rise of Lyme – that it is a nat­ur­al con­se­quence of a recent pop­u­la­tion explo­sion of deer due to refor­esta­tion, com­bined sub­ur­ban­i­sa­tion, bring­ing humans into con­tact with forests – then the pres­ence of Lyme in the dusty sand dunes of Iraq seems per­verse.

And what of the doc­tors of the oppos­ing camp, those asso­ci­at­ed with ILADS? ILADS doc­tors and researchers increas­ing­ly find them­selves per­se­cut­ed, vic­tims of spu­ri­ous charges made against them to Med­ical Boards, and are hound­ed out of their pro­fes­sions. At the time of writ­ing, pae­di­a­tri­cian Dr Charles Ray Jones, cred­it­ed by thou­sands of par­ents with restor­ing the health of their dis­abled chil­dren, is under tri­al, accused of mis­con­duct. A few years ago, Dr Lida Mattman, a Nobel Prize nom­i­nee who worked on an alter­na­tive cul­ture medi­um for Lyme, was ordered to shut down oper­a­tions by police who arrived at her lab with hand­cuffs. Dozens of doc­tors who had been treat­ing Lyme suc­cess­ful­ly accord­ing to their clin­i­cal judge­ment, rather than rely­ing on insen­si­tive blood tests or arbi­trary lim­its on antibi­ot­ic dura­tion, have been forced to stop. The pres­i­dent of ILADS, Dr Ray­mond Strick­er, has told the press he believes Lyme dis­ease is a bioweapon.

Lyme dis­ease is the sub­ject of hot con­tro­ver­sy, with the “Steere camp” claim­ing it is an eas­i­ly cured ail­ment, while the ILADS camp views it as a severe­ly dis­abling, mul­ti-symp­tom neu­ro­log­i­cal dis­ease.

The num­ber of Steere camp Lyme researchers with a back­ground in the Epi­dem­ic Intel­li­gence Ser­vice (EIS) and/or biowar­fare research is too numer­ous to be pure co-inci­dence. Two sci­en­tists who have played a cen­tral role in the Lyme sto­ry, Bar­bour and Klemp­n­er, have been placed in charge of new biowar super-labs set up in the after­math of 9–11, where they are aid­ed by some of their Steerite col­leagues. Oth­ers, while not in charge of super-labs, are nev­er­the­less in receipt of sub­stan­tial grants for biowar­fare research.

The Unit­ed States and some of its NATO allies have a long and sor­did his­to­ry of exper­i­men­ta­tion into bio­log­i­cal weapons of mass destruc­tion and mass inca­pac­i­ta­tion. The Bor­re­lia genus and ticks as biowar vec­tors have been stud­ied for decades, and recent rev­e­la­tions about the Plum Island dis­ease lab, across the water from old Lyme, Con­necti­cut are wor­ry­ing. The devel­op­ment of the so-called “non-lethal weapons” has been a major part of biowar sci­ence for decades.

Sus­pi­cion is fur­ther fuelled by the dec­la­ra­tion by America’s Nation­al Insti­tute of Health that a doc­u­ment on their web­site list­ing Lyme as a microbe stud­ied for bioter­ror­ism poten­tial was a “mis­take”, just at the time that a CDC source leaked the same “mis­take” to the Asso­ci­at­ed Press. British del­e­gates at an inter­na­tion­al con­fer­ence on the pre­ven­tion of bioter­ror­ism revealed that intense work on Lyme and oth­er tick-borne dis­ease is con­duct­ed at the UK’s top biowar lab at Por­ton Down.

Lyme has been cho­sen as a “sen­tinel organ­ism” in a method of rapid­ly detect­ing bioweapons, and the whole genus, or cat­e­go­ry, of bor­re­lia was includ­ed among those to be mon­i­tored by the UN in Iraq after the first Gulf War. US sol­diers in Iraq today are warned by the mil­i­tary to pro­tect them­selves against the dis­ease.

It’s pos­si­ble to see the mod­ern his­to­ry of Lyme as a string of events with an EIS mem­ber at every cru­cial node. The dis­cov­ery of new Lyme-caus­ing bor­re­lia, genet­i­cal­ly dis­tinct from the Bor­re­lia burgdor­feri group first cul­tured by EIS offi­cer Alan Bar­bour, throws up the ques­tion as to whether the Bbsl organ­isms he intro­duced to med­i­cine was the only, (or even the most) rel­e­vant bor­re­lia. The test­ing and diag­nos­tic reg­i­mens based on the views of Bar­bour, Steere, etc and backed by
fed­er­al health agen­cies such as CDC and NIH cur­rent­ly con­demn huge num­bers of Lyme patients to a med­ical lim­bo, with­out treat­ment or recog­ni­tion for their dis­ease. The cost in human suf­fer­ing may be unimag­in­able.

- — - -
[i] Williams P, and Wal­lace D, “Unit 731, the Japan­ese Army’s Secret of Secrets”, Hod­der and Stoughton 1989, p284

[ii] BBC news web­site http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/1457035.stm

[iii] Howard Cole, Chief of Intel­li­gence at America’s Chem­i­cal War­fare Ser­vice, report­ed in “Unit 731” , p105

[iv] “Unit 731”. Op cit.

[v] Car­roll, Michael “Lab 257-The Dis­turb­ing Sto­ry of the Gov­ern­men­t’s Secret Germ Lab­o­ra­to­ry”, Harp­er Collins 2004

[vi] Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Direc­torate> https://www.jnlwd.usmc.mil/
vii] “Lab 257” op cit.

[viii] ibid.

[ix] Bacon et al, “Glyc­erophos­pho­di­ester phos­pho­di­esterase gene (glpQ) of Bor­re­lia lon­es­tari iden­ti­fied as a tar­get for dif­fer­en­ti­at­ing Bor­re­lia species asso­ci­at­ed with hard ticks”, J Clin Micro­bi­ol 2004 May;42(5):2326–8.

[x] Mur­ray, Pol­ly, “The Widen­ing Cir­cle”, St Martin’s Press 1996

[xi] http://www.cste.org/PS/2006pdfs/PSFINAL2006/06-EC-01FINAL.pdf.

[xii] Cen­ter for Dis­ease Con­trol web­site> www.cdc.gov/eis; http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/r010720.htm

[xiii] ibid.

[xiv] Bar­bour, Alan “Lyme Dis­ease: the Cause, the Cure, the Con­tro­ver­sy”, The John Hop­kins Uni­ver­si­ty Press 1996, p 29.

[xv] “The Widen­ing Cir­cle”, op cit. p.174

[xvi]> > New York State Office of> Sci­ence, Tech­nol­o­gy and Aca­d­e­m­ic Research, NYS­tar News http://www.nystar.state.ny.us/nl/archives2004/longislandA08-04.htm

[xvii]Beaver, PC and Burgdor­fer, W “A micro­fi­lar­ia of excep­tion­al size from the ixo­did tick, Ixodes dammi­ni, from Shel­ter Island, New York” J Par­a­sitol 1984 Dec;70(6):963–6

[xvi­ii] Bar­bour, Alan “Lyme Dis­ease: the Cause, the Cure, the Con­tro­ver­sy”, The John Hop­kins Uni­ver­si­ty Press 1996 p30.

[xix] Uni­ver­si­ty of Cal­i­for­nia at Irvine web­site http://today.uci.edu/news/media_advisory_detail.asp?key=80

[xx] Bar­bour, Alan op cit.

[xxi] See 17 pages of cita­tions from peer-reviewed med­ical lit­er­a­ture archived at http://www.lymeinfo.net/medical/LDSeronegativity.pdf

[xxii] Bacon et al, op cit.

[xxi­ii] Varela et al, “First Cul­ture Iso­la­tion of Bor­re­lia lon­es­tari, Puta­tive Agent of South­ern Tick-Asso­ci­at­ed Rash Ill­ness “, J Clin Micro­bi­ol. 2004 March; 42(3): 1163–1169

[xxiv] UCI Med­ical Cen­tre http://www.ucihealth.com/News/Releases/06–05BiodefenseResearch.htm

[xxv] McSwee­gan biog­ra­phy http://advance.uri.edu/quadangles/spr2004/story9.htm — profile6

[xxvi] NIH News> http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/apr2006/niaid-23.htm

[xxvii] CDC http://www.cdc.gov/eis/conference/archives/2003ProgramAbstracts.pdf

[xxvi­ii] NY Acad­e­my of Sci­ences http://www.nyas.org/biodef/speakers.asp

[xxix] ILADS Treat­ment Guide­lines> http://www.ilads.org/guidelines.html

[xxx] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A27646-2005Jan21.html

[xxxi] For exam­ple, this one at: http://web.archive.org/web/20050208095246/http:/www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/detrick_qa.htm

[xxxii] See MSNBC arti­cle fea­tured on http://www.ctlymedisease.org/featurearticle02.htm

[xxxi­ii] http://www.sciencecoalition.org/glossary/glossary_main.htm

[xxxiv] http://www.theyworkforyou.com/wrans/?id=2004–12-15a.203881.h&s=“lyme+disease”

[xxxv] http://www.opbw.org/new_process/mx2004/bwc_msp.2004_mx_wp51_rev.1_E.pdf

[xxxvi] http://business.guardian.co.uk/story/0,3604,663032,00.html

[xxxvii]> Sherr, V com­ment in the Lancet http://www.thehumansideoflyme.net/viewarticle.php?aid=60&PHPSESSID=109a322bd7e9529b2e74c151aface839

[xxxvi­ii] http://www.lymediseaseassociation.org/EICSconference.doc

[xxxix] Pol­lack C, Stra­ley SC, Klemp­n­er MS, “Prob­ing the phagolyso­so­mal envi­ron­ment of human macrophages with a Ca2+-responsive oper­on fusion in Yersinia pestis” Nature. 1986 Aug 28-Sep 3;322(6082):834–6.

[xl] Rees et al, “Epi­demi­o­log­ic and lab­o­ra­to­ry inves­ti­ga­tions of bovine anthrax in two Utah coun­ties in 1975” Pub­lic Health Rep, 1977 Mar-Apr;92(2):176–86.

[xli] “Note by the Exec­u­tive Chair­man of the Spe­cial Com­mis­sion estab­lished pur­suant to para­graph 9 (b) (i) of Secu­ri­ty Coun­cil res­o­lu­tion 687 (1991)” Doc­u­ment date: 17 March 1995 Ref- S/1995/208> http://www.fas.org/news/un/iraq/s/s1995-0208.htm


2 comments for “History of Lyme Disease as a Bioweapon”

  1. Hey Dave and co, I thought you would be VERY inter­est­ed in this arti­cle.. Plum Island is up for sale. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100520/ap_on_re_us/us_plum_island_sale

    Posted by Mike R. | May 21, 2010, 12:53 pm

    Rep. Chris Smith, a Repub­li­can from New Jer­sey, who was “inspired” by sev­er­al books and arti­cles claim­ing that the U.S. gov­ern­ment had con­duct­ed research at facil­i­ties such as Fort Det­rick, Mary­land, and Plum Island, New York, for this pur­pose.

    ast week, the U.S. House of Rep­re­sen­ta­tives qui­et­ly passed a bill requir­ing the Inspec­tor Gen­er­al of the Depart­ment of Defense (DoD) to con­duct a review into whether the Pen­ta­gon exper­i­ment­ed with ticks and oth­er blood-suck­ing insects for use as bio­log­i­cal weapons between 1950 and 1975.

    New­by con­tends that these exper­i­ments could have—accidentally or deliberately—led to the spread of Lyme dis­ease in the 1960s. And even though Richard Nixon banned bio­log­i­cal weapons research in 1969, such exper­i­ments may have con­tin­ued, Roll Call report­ed.


    Posted by Roberto Maldonado | July 18, 2019, 4:19 pm

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